Joy Broto Nath A Optimistic,Resilient,Mindful, & Skilful HR

Meticulous and efficient HR Executive with approx 1 year of experience in hiring and training procedures for new employees, Coordinate and direct work activities for managers and employees and promote a positive and open work environment both on national and international scales.

Recent Answers

To link your LINKEDIN account there are many ways.
If your LinkedIn profile is set to public, it will have a link (URL) you can use to share your profile with others.
To find your public profile's URL:
1. Click the Me icon at the top of your LinkedIn homepage.
2. Click View profile.
3. On your profile page, click Edit public profile & URL on the right rail.
4. Under the section Edit URL in the right rail, locate your public profile URL.
• It'll be an address that starts with
5. Copy and paste this link to share it with others.

If you are using iOS you can use the following methods:
1. To find your public profile’s URL:
1. Tap your profile photo > View Profile.
2. Scroll down to the Contact section.
3. Under the Your Profile section, locate your public profile URL.
• It will be an address that starts with
4. Copy and paste this link to share it with others.

If you are an android user:
To find your public profile’s URL:
1. Tap your profile photo > View Profile.
2. Scroll down to the Contact section.
3. Under the Your Profile section, locate your public profile URL.
• It will be an address that starts with
4. Copy and paste this link to share it with others.

If you are a Mobile Browser & Light App user:
If your LinkedIn profile is set to public, it will have a web address (URL) you can share with others.
1. Tap the Profile icon.
2. Scroll down to the Contact section.
3. Under LinkedIn, locate your public profile URL.
• It’ll be an address that starts with
4. You can copy and paste this link to share it with others.

Wish you a good health. Besides if you do have any questions give me a call:

Work life balance is important for everyone because life in these Covid-19 times is incredibly stressful. Modern day stress seems to be more widespread than ever and many of the reasons are obvious, such as more work by less people, financial uncertainty, job insecurity, constant performance measurement, the increasing requirement for instant information or response, impossible targets, juggling work/home priorities, the downsides of cyberspace technology, the depressing state of affairs in many parts of the world and much more besides. Another reason sometimes suggested is that, thanks to far reaching research, so much more is known about the subject now and some will suggest that this encourages unhealthy circumspection. I take the point but suggest it underlines the need to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject rather than a superficial one. There might be many reasons to be stressful as most of us are working form home. These reasons are as follows:
1. Being set unrealistic deadlines
2. The state of my teenager’s bedroom
3. People not calling me back
4. 300 e-mails waiting for me after two days away
5. My boss ignoring me
6. The traffic jams on my way to work
7. Colleagues’ idle chatter when we are all so busy
8. Old ladies holding everyone up at the check-out
9. Multi choice telephone answering systems
10. People who do not seem to care
11. My next-door neighbour’s cat
12. Pointless meetings which go on for ever

Given the premise that we have choice in the extent to which we allow everyday frustrations and setbacks to affect our mood, it follows that our perceptions of such matters are vital and of course these can vary alarmingly from day to day, influenced by what else has been going on at work, home, or even the journey between the two. A challenging situation today may give us a buzz, whereas the identical situation tomorrow might be a burden. The dual recognition that (a) we have choice of perception and (b) that we can often be our own worst enemy are not easy to remember when we are having a bad day.
It is a common misconception that some level of stress is a good thing, but you will find very few academics supporting this view. It is a grey area because of the semantics of the words we use. We all benefit at times from experiencing pressure in our lives, but if we feel broadly in control of it, then it is not stress we are experiencing. Pressure can be invaluable in helping us to concentrate and to focus. Some of the physiological consequences of stress can be valuable when they are anticipated. A professional firefighter entering a burning building might be experiencing a thrust of extra physical strength and consciousness, as might a sprinter pushing off the blocks. But they understand this short-lived advantage, feel in control of it and can turn it to their advantage. Stress in itself is not an illness, but it can readily be the trigger for some physical health problem. There is, however, a notable exception in cases of prolonged burnout which might result in the mental stability of the individual being impaired permanently. Conversely, some of the most relaxed individuals I have met have told me they were only that way as a result of their experience of burnout and their subsequent resolve to change their outlook on life: ‘I’m never going there again’.
There are common signs of stress, these are as follows:
1. Physical signs:
1. palpitations – throbbing heart
2. pain and tightness in the chest
3. indigestion
4. breathlessness
5. nausea
6. muscle twitches
7. tiredness
8. headache, vague aches or pains
9. skin irritation or rashes, susceptibility to allergies
10. clenched fists or jaw
11. feeling faint
12. frequent colds, flu or other infections
13. recurrence of previous illnesses
14. constipation or diarrhoea
15. rapid weight gain or loss
16. alteration of the menstrual pattern in women

2. Emotional signs:
1. swings in mood
2. increased worrying
3. feeling tense
4. drained, no enthusiasm
5. feeling angry, guilty
6. cynical
7. feeling nervous, apprehensive, anxious
8. feelings of helplessness
9. loss of confidence and self-esteem
10. lack of concentration, withdrawal into daydreams
3. Behavioural signs:
1. accident-prone
2. poor work
3. increased dependence on nicotine, alcohol, or drugs
4. overeating or loss of appetite
5. change in sleep pattern, difficulty in getting to sleep and waking tired
6. loss of interest in sex
7. impaired speech
8. withdrawal from supportive relationships
9. irritability
10. taking work home more
11. too busy to relax
12. not looking after oneself
13. speeding up – talking, walking, eating, drinking

Can you relate to any of the following? If so, select a few changes and experiment with moving towards a more balanced life. Even small steps can make a real difference.
1) Work/home interface. Could you spend less time at work, at least on certain days of the week? If you must take work home, try excluding certain days of the week. Never take work home without the resolve to get it done that evening. It’s fatal to take it thinking, ‘I’ll see how I feel.’ You probably will not get it done and then you will feel guilty and your self-worth will have taken a knock.
2) What are weekends for? If you have used your weekend to really enhance your work/life balance in whatever way suits you, then early on Sunday evening you may experience the STB. The Sunday Teatime Blip is when the refreshing diversion of the weekend ends abruptly at the spectre of work in the morning. You are now at work in your head and your weekend break has ended prematurely. A good way to avoid this unhelpful state is to plan some activity or social get-together for the evening so that your mind is less likely to wander to work.
3) Contactable at home? Other than in really exceptional cases, is it really necessary? Perhaps you cannot stop your boss, but what about your team? Are you that indispensable? Perhaps it makes you feel good? Perhaps they are just playing to your ego and letting you take decisions they should be taking themselves?
4) Time management away from work: Are you happy with your time management outside work? Maybe it suits you to have no plan and just chill out for an evening or a weekend. Perhaps that is just what you need for once and it will do you good. But the law of reality dictates that you always have some household matters outstanding. You may be the sort who likes to deal with them before you can really relax or maybe you take the view that it can wait until you feel like it. Why does today something which can wait until tomorrow? All that matters is that you protect yourself from self-induced stress by arranging your time and responsibilities away from work in such a way that you do not feel bad about it.
5) Exercise, relaxation, diet, pride in your appearance and physical condition: It would be tedious and not appreciated if I laboured these issues on which so many magazines seem to thrive. In the context of this book, the only point to make is that all such things play a bigger part in one’s wellbeing than is generally realized. The close relationship between stress and how you feel about yourself is obvious.
6) Holidays: Do you always take your full annual allocation? It is misguided not to do so.
7) Journey home. Allow yourself to be debriefing on the day up to a halfway landmark and then focus on what awaits you at home.
8) Get those clothes off: Change into something different as soon as you get home. To some it may seem of little consequence, but it is good psychology. Home is home.
9) Leave a Friday evening list: On a Friday evening leave a brief list of the main things which will require your attention on the following Monday and then forget about them.

Wish you a good health. Besides if you do have any questions give me a call:

The pelvic area is particularly important when it comes to female reproductive system. The pelvic area contains pelvic floor muscles (PFM). These are two layers of muscles that wrap around the vagina and the vaginal opening. These muscles provide structural support for organs, assist with continence (bladder and bowel), contract during orgasm, and also help with stability of your core and posture. Fibroids are tumours made of smooth muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue. Fibroids can be of various types:
i. Intramural fibroids: Intramural fibroids are the most common type of fibroid. These types appear within the muscular wall of the uterus. Intramural fibroids may grow larger and can stretch your womb.
ii. Subserosal fibroids: Subserosal fibroids form on the outside of your uterus, which is called the serosa. They may grow large enough to make your womb appear bigger on one side.
iii. Pedunculated fibroids: Subserosal tumours can develop a stem, a slender base that supports the tumour. When they do, they are known as pedunculated fibroids.
iv. Submucosal fibroids: These types of tumours develop in the middle muscle layer, or myometrium, of your uterus. Submucosal tumours are not as common as the other types.
The most important point to note here is that you have hypothyroidism and it is linked with fibroids. Women with hypothyroidism were seen to be three times more likely to have fibroids, especially larger fibroids, in comparison to women without hypothyroidism. Given these findings, Walch and her team concluded that hypothyroidism could be linked to fibroids. Factors that increase the risk of fibroids include African American ethnicity and age—as Walch and her team verified—as well as family history and obesity. Although factors like these may have a genetic component, some research points to controllable factors like dietary habits that could influence fibroid risk. It is suggested that a diet heavy in green vegetables may protect women from developing fibroids.
Certain home remedies and natural treatments can have a positive effect on fibroids, including:
1. acupuncture
2. yoga
3. massage
4. Gui Zhi Fu Ling Tang (GFLT), a traditional Chinese medicine formula
5. applying heat for cramps (avoid heat if you experience heavy bleeding)
Dietary changes can help as well. Avoid meats and high-calorie foods. Instead, opt for foods high in flavonoids, green vegetables, green tea, and cold-water fish such as tuna or salmon.
Managing your stress levels and losing weight if you’re overweight can also benefit women with fibroids.
Besides if you want to know more about your condition check these links below:
1. 1. American Thyroid Association. (2016). General Information/Press Room. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from HTTP://WWW.THYROID.ORG/MEDIA-MAIN/ABOUT-HYPOTHYROIDISM/
2. Ott, J., Kurz, C., Braun, R., Promberger, R., Seemann, R., Vytiska-Binstorfer, E., & Walch, K. (2014). Overt hypothyroidism is associated with the presence of uterine leiomyoma: a retrospective analysis. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 177: 19-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.03.003. HTTP://WWW.EJOG.ORG/ARTICLE/S0301-2115(14)00135-3/ABSTRACT
3. US Department of Health and Human Services. (2013). Uterine Fibroids. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from HTTPS://REPORT.NIH.GOV/NIHFACTSHEETS/VIEWFACTSHEET.ASPX?CSID=50
4. Office On Women’s Health, US Department of Health and Human Services. (2015). Uterine Fibroid Fact Sheet. Retrieved October 26, 2015, from HTTPS://WWW.WOMENSHEALTH.GOV/PUBLICATIONS/OUR-PUBLICATIONS/FACT-SHEET/UTERINE-FIBROIDS.HTML
5. Harris, C. (2012). Thyroid Disease and Diet—Nutrition Plays a Part in Maintaining Thyroid Health. Today’s Dietitian, 14(7): 40. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from HTTP://WWW.TODAYSDIETITIAN.COM/NEWARCHIVES/070112P40.SHTML
Wish you a good health. Besides if you do have any questions give me a call:

Before I relate your personality to a suitable career, I would like to talk a bit about personality. Personality is one element in the mix that makes up who a person is. The unique “us” can be regarded as a mixture of all the following:
a) in-born talents and skills
b) taught habits and skills
c) the environment in which we were brought up
d) education
e) drive and ambition
f) circumstances in which we find ourselves
g) the impact of others
h) our personality types.
While most of these factors are variables, we know that a person’s personality type remains the same throughout their life. The way we are managed, or manage ourselves, can however determine the extent to which we make the most of our types and the extent to which we grow as individuals.
A typology is the study of human personality types. The use of typologies has been a consistent feature of the age-old attempt to understand “what makes people tick”. Some of the most enduring typologies are:
a) the Ancient Greek theory of Humours
b) the Medieval system of Elements
c) the models of extraversion and introversion advocated by Carl Jung, Hans Eysenck and Myers-Briggs
d) the stress personality types of Rosenman and Friedman
e) the team role types of Meredith Belbin and Margerison-McCann
f) astrological star signs.
While no one typology works for everyone all the time for every purpose, some of these typologies can be reliable predictors of how people will behave in given situations at work.
Elias H.Porter was an American psychologist who, while working with disadvantaged youngsters in New York, developed a personality typology consisting of 3 main types: Reds, the go-getters; Greens, the analytical thinkers; and Blues, the people. Porter’s point was to show the youngsters that people were different but of equal value. Understanding the way others are when different to us is not a reason for conflict. By being aware of the way others see the world and then accepting them for their differences means they can complement our strengths and make us all stronger.
The Enneagram is a typology of human types that has a long and varied history. It can be traced back for more than 4000 years and has recently been re-discovered as a means of understanding human types.

The Enneagram identifies nine basic human types, (hence the word “enneagram”, which is Greek for “nine-pointed figure”). These types are not identified as names but as numbers, ie Ones through to Nines. Each number corresponds to a personality type with its own characteristics. These characteristics are similar to the groups of human traits identified by psychologists and writers such as Carl Jung. The Enneagram provides a way to study human personality that is, on the one hand, instantly accessible, allowing us, for example, to immediately recognise what number a person is. At the same time, the Enneagram has depths and layers of meaning that may take a lifetime to learn. Whichever personality typology you use, make sure it is one that is reliable and chimes with your own experience of how people behave. A typology such as the Enneagram will give you an immediate understanding of why people behave as they do and at the same time show you how they can develop in beneficial and psychologically healthy ways.
The Enneagram is a typology of human personality that has existed in one form or another for thousands of years. The current interest in the contribution which people make in the workplace has renewed interest in it. The Enneagram has many facets. At one level, it can be viewed as a simple description of nine personality types, allowing us to identify and understand the characteristics of those who work for us. At another level, it gives clues about how people will behave in certain situations, thus enabling us to make better decisions about selection, delegation and teamwork and about the personal development of those who work for us.
The Enneagram (pronounced “Any-a-gram”) offers an accessible system of understanding individual personality based around nine types, or points, hence Enneagram, a Greek word for a nine-starred diagram.
These are the nine types:
1. Ones: the need to be perfect
2. Twos: the need to be needed
3. Threes: the need to be successful
4. Fours: the need to be special
5. Fives: the need to perceive
6. Sixes: the need to be secure
7. Sevens: the need to be happy
8. Eights: the need to be strong
9. Nines: the need to be free
In “The Enneagram Made Easy”, Renee Baron and Elizabeth Wagele offer a simple way to understand the differences in the 9 personality types. They imagine that each personality type has been invited to a dinner party and then suggest some thoughts that each type would “typically” have before, during and after the party. Here they are:
Before the Party:
1. Ones: “I hope I’m bringing the appropriate wine”
2. Twos: “I hope my friends will all like one another”
3. Threes: “I hope to do a lot of networking tonight”
4. Fours: “I’m not in the mood for a party”
5. Fives: “I wish I could stay at home with my book”
6. Sixes: “I must remember to feed the cat and lock up”
7. Sevens: “If it isn’t a fun group, I’m off to do something else”
8. Eights: “I’m OUTTA THERE if there isn’t good wine, men, and song”
9. Nines: “I’ll feel so good if I can make a nice connection tonight”
During the Party:
1. Ones: “Not enough food groups represented in this menu”
2. Twos: “It’s so great to feel needed”
3. Threes: “I need to eat and run. I’m swamped.”
4. Fours: “Cheap caviar - shocking”
5. Fives: It’s a talkative group. Good, that gets me off the hook”
6. Sixes: “She’s leaving early. Doesn’t she like us?”
7. Sevens: “First, I’ll eat, then take some pictures, then go to my class”
8. Eights: “Pass it down. Pass it all down here.”
9. Nines: “I feel so close to everyone”
After the Party:
1. Ones: “I hope I didn’t offend George with that remark”
2. Twos: “I’m so exhausted but I’m glad everyone had a good time”
3. Threes: “I didn’t make any contacts at the party, but I made up for it at the fund-raiser afterwards”
4. Fours: “The conversation was so mundane”
5. Fives: “I’m glad I left early so I could read my book”
6. Sixes: “Feels great to be safe at home”
7. Sevens: (Harry is still out having fun)
8. Eights: “I sure wiped the floor with them in that debate”
9. Nines: “I’m glad they liked my story”
The personalities described in Enneagram can be described in more scientific way. These are as follows:
1. THE REFORMER: The Rational, Idealistic Type: Principled, Purposeful, Self-Controlled, and Perfectionistic
2. THE HELPER: The Caring, Interpersonal Type: Demonstrative, Generous, People-Pleasing, and Possessive
3. THE ACHIEVER: The Success-Oriented, Pragmatic Type: Adaptive, Excelling, Driven, and Image-Conscious
4. THE INDIVIDUALIST: The Sensitive, Withdrawn Type: Expressive, Dramatic, Self-Absorbed, and Temperamental
5. THE INVESTIGATOR: The Intense, Cerebral Type: Perceptive, Innovative, Secretive, and Isolated
6. THE LOYALIST: The Committed, Security-Oriented Type: Engaging, Responsible, Anxious, and Suspicious
7. THE ENTHUSIAST: The Busy, Fun-Loving Type: Spontaneous, Versatile, Distractible, and Scattered
8. THE CHALLENGER: The Powerful, Dominating Type: Self-Confident, Decisive, Wilful, and Confrontational
9. THE PEACEMAKER: The Easy-going, Self-Effacing Type: Receptive, Reassuring, Agreeable, and Complacent
Having understood this, I will expand it a bit to accommodate career changes. This is called Carl G. Jung's 16 personality types. In order to be content and fulfilled in the workplace, it is vital to match your occupation and work environment to your personality type. This is because job satisfaction is at its highest when your job engages your strong personality traits. Similarly, it boosts professional fulfilment when your job is in line with your attitude, values, and preferences.
For example, INTJs, ENTJs, ENFJs, and ESTJs often find themselves in engineering roles within technology-focused organizations. In addition, ENTJs, ENFJs, and ESTJs may take on leadership roles. Conversely, ISFJ, ISFP, and ESFJ personality types often work in people-oriented industries such as healthcare, social services, and counselling. ISFJs, ISFPs, and ESFJs may find themselves particularly comfortable in roles where they interact directly with clients and provide practical, personal help. Likewise, ESFJ, ENFJ, INFJ, and ISTJ types enjoy leadership and management roles in the same field. Job-related stress is lower when your responsibilities at work correspond to your personality-related preferences. Having to meet job requirements that conflict with your personality type may lead to significant dissatisfaction. For instance, if you are an expressed introvert and your job requires frequent, prolonged social interaction, it can make for a very frustrating situation that may lead to burnout. According to Carl G. Jung's theory of psychological types, people can be characterized by their preference of general attitude:
• Extraverted (E) vs. Introverted (I),
their preference of one of the two functions of perception:
• Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N),
and their preference of one of the two functions of judging:
• Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F)
The three areas of preferences introduced by Jung are dichotomies (i.e. bipolar dimensions where each pole represents a different preference). Jung also proposed that in a person one of the four functions above is dominant – either a function of perception or a function of judging. Isabel Briggs Myers, a researcher and practitioner of Jung’s theory, proposed to see the judging-perceiving relationship as a fourth dichotomy influencing personality type:
• Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P)
The first criterion, Extraversion – Introversion, signifies the source and direction of a person’s energy expression. An extravert’s source and direction of energy expression is mainly in the external world, while an introvert has a source of energy mainly in their own internal world.
The second criterion, Sensing – Intuition, represents the method by which someone perceives information. Sensing means that a person mainly believes information he or she receives directly from the external world. Intuition means that a person believes mainly information he or she receives from the internal or imaginative world.
The third criterion, Thinking – Feeling, represents how a person processes information. Thinking means that a person decides mainly through logic. Feeling means that, as a rule, he or she decides based on emotion, i.e. based on what they feel they should do.
The fourth criterion, Judging – Perceiving, reflects how a person implements the information he or she has processed. Judging means that a person organizes all his life events and, as a rule, sticks to his plans. Perceiving means that he or she is inclined to improvise and explore alternative options.
1. ESTJ Career Choices: ESTJs often find themselves in occupations that require thorough analysis, practical planning and organizational skills, process control and responsibility. ESTJs make good mid- and high-rank managers and executives. They succeed as military and police workers, politicians, engineers and entrepreneurs.
2. ISTJ Career Choices: Due to their natural strengths ISTJs often find themselves in occupations that involve controlling production processes effectively, orientation to details, clear-cut planning, occupations that require responsibility and being an efficient worker. They are found across a wide range of industries and verticals, in organizations of all sizes. ISTJs succeed as military and police workers, engineers, auditors, lawyers, surgeons.
3. ENTJ Career Choices: ENTJs often find themselves in occupations that require good analytical and planning skills. ENTJs build successful careers in those areas that require considerable organizational skills and intellectual effort, in occupations that present a challenge and call for creativity. They are greatly represented in technological and management consulting companies among engineers and developers, and among high- and mid-rank managers. They are also able to realize their potential in start-ups where they often fulfil management positions or take responsibility for the whole project.
4. INTJ Career Choices: Generally, INTJs have successful careers in areas requiring intense intellectual effort, those that present intellectual challenges, and require a creative approach. Due to the characteristics mentioned above, successful INTJs are found in technological companies, particularly in research and development, and among corporate lawyers, high- and mid-rank managers in technology companies and financial institutions.
5. ESTP Career Choices: ESTPs often find themselves in occupations that require prompt and active responses. ESTPs succeed as salespeople, crime and fraud investigators, sailors, race car drivers, athletes, actors, entrepreneurs, rescue operation staff, and occasionally politicians and special combat forces. Many ESTPs are found among implementation and maintenance specialists.
6. ISTP Career Choices: Due to their natural strengths ISTPs often find themselves in occupations that involve direct participation in manufacturing, the production or maintenance process, in fields that require a good understanding of details. ISTPs succeed as technicians, mechanics, electricians, electrical, mechanical, and other maintenance and repair specialists, trouble-shooters, handymen, drivers, programmers, athletes. They are good in rescue operations and in any occupation that is action-oriented and requires specialized skills as well as analytical thinking.
7. ENTP Career Choices: Generally, ENTPs build successful careers in areas requiring intense intellectual effort, a creative approach, and those that present an intellectual challenge. Because of the characteristics mentioned above, ENTPs are often found in research, development, and analytical departments. ENTPs often make very successful careers in academia thanks to their strong and versatile way of thinking along with their great erudition.
8. INTP Career Choices: Generally, INTPs build successful careers in fields requiring quite intense intellectual effort and that call for a creative approach. INTPs are often found in research, development and analytical departments. INTPs often make very successful careers in academia thanks to their originality and their strong and versatile way of thinking.
9. ESFJ Career Choices: ESFJs often find themselves in occupations that involve either a lot of direct interaction with other people (e.g. clients, other staff members) or involve responsibility for critical tasks (e.g. those that require complete attention or that may have serious consequences), or both. Very often ESFJs realize their potential in health care and various community care organizations. Other favoured areas of occupation include social work, service-oriented professions as well as teaching (often at elementary schools).
10. ISFJ Career Choices: ISFJs often find themselves in occupations that either involve a lot of interactions with other people and/or require meticulousness and diligence. They work in organizations of various sizes and in industries, where, as a rule, they work with people. Very often ISFJs realize their potential in health care (nurses, patient care and medical services, as well as administrative jobs) and various community care organizations. Other favoured areas of occupation include social work and service-oriented professions.
11. ENFJ Career Choices: ENFJs often find themselves in occupations that require good interpersonal skills to establish productive collaboration as well as to establish or maintain effective work processes. ENFJs are one of the most “universal” personality types and they build successful careers in a broad range of organizations and occupations. There are many ENFJs found in mid- and high-rank management roles. Sales, various social services, counselling, teaching, healthcare, community care as well as legal and paralegal services are just some of the examples of favourable occupations for ENFJs.
12. INFJ Career Choices: INFJs are effective in occupations involving substantial intellectual work, caring for other people, and those that require creativity. INFJs build successful careers in a broad range of organizations. Social and community care services, counselling, teachers of the humanities and social sciences, healthcare workers (both in administration and in medical services), various service-oriented professions along with work in religious services and social movements are just some of the examples of occupations favourable to INFJs. Quite often, they are found in mid-rank management positions. For some of them, occupations in sciences or academia are also favourable.
13. ESFP Career Choices: Any activities requiring good performing or entertaining skills are very suitable for ESFPs. Certain marketing roles that benefit from such skills can be a good fit. ESFPs also often find themselves in occupations that involve direct communication with customers and audiences where similar skills are useful. They may work in organizations of various sizes and industries. Social work or social counselling is also an area favourable to ESFPs. ESFPs often realize their artistic abilities in media and entertainment organizations.
14. ISFP Career Choices: ISFPs often find themselves in occupations that involve communication with customers or occupations that require a good sense of aesthetics such as: customer support roles, store sales associate roles (where aggressive selling is not required). Childcare is a favourable area for ISFPs. Working with data and spreadsheets is also suitable. ISFPs can realize their aesthetic abilities in art, design, and creative media companies.
15. ENFP Career Choices: ENFPs are well-suited to occupations involving a lot of intellectual work focused on the humanities and social sciences, which also requires creativity. For example, they make good life coaches, social workers, psychologists, addiction rehab counsellors, and other mental and community care staff. They are also successful in teaching subjects related to the humanities and social sciences. Additionally, they succeed as journalists and in various occupations requiring good communication skills.
16. INFP Career Choices: Overall, INFPs are effective in occupations involving a lot of intellectual work that is focused on the humanities and social sciences, the spirit and soul, inspirational activities, and those that require creativity. Social workers, psychologists, life coaches, addiction rehab counsellors, mental and community care staff, elementary education, teaching, and creative script writing are just some of the examples of suitable occupations for INFPs. They are also successful in academia thanks to their intellectual strength.
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call:

User experience (UX) design can be a complicated and overwhelming field for newcomers, as it encompasses a wide range of topics (from accessibility to wireframing). Some of these topics overlap, while some of them complement one another. Therefore, it’s important to come to a common and basic understanding of what the term “user experience” means in a design context.
User experience design, as its name suggests, is about designing the ideal experience of using a service or product. As such, it can involve all types of products and services—think, for instance, about the design involved in a museum exhibition. However, in the main, the term user experience design is used in relation to websites, web applications and other software applications. Since the second half of this century’s first decade, technologies have become increasingly complex, and the functionality of applications and websites has become far broader and far more intricate. Early websites were simple static pages that served up information to feed curious searchers; however, a few decades later, what we can find a wealth of online are sites that are interactive and offer a much richer feel for users. In general, user experience is simply how people feel when they use a product or service. In most cases, that product will be a website or an application of some form. Every instance of human-object interaction has an associated user experience, but, in general, UX practitioners are interested in the relationship between human users and computers and computer-based products, such as websites, applications and systems. A UX designer is someone who investigates and analyses how users feel about the products he or she offers them. UX designers then apply this knowledge to product development in order to ensure that the user has the best possible experience with a product. UX designers conduct research, analyse their findings, inform other members of the development team of their findings, monitor development projects to ensure those findings are implemented, and do much more.
In times gone by, product design was simple; designers-built stuff they thought was cool and that they hoped their clients would like. Unfortunately, there are two problems with that approach. The first is that, back then, there was far less competition for people’s attention online. The second is that there’s no consideration for the user of the product at all in that approach—the success or failure of a development project was down to luck as much as it was down to the judgement of the design team. Focusing on UX enables design to focus on the user. It increases the chances of a project’s success when it finally comes to market, not least because it does not gamble on the faith of users in taking to a product just because it is a brand name.
UX Design can be found in a variety of project environments today, including:
i. Complex projects — the more complicated the project, the more essential UX design is. Too many features handled the wrong way can deter users like nothing else.
ii. Start-ups — you may not find dedicated UX teams in a start-up, but UX is always part of the objective. High-tech start-ups developing innovative projects need to understand how their users feel even more than established companies do.
iii. Projects with decent budgets — UX tends to get skipped in low-value projects, but any development project team with a decent budget will tend to allocate some of their financial resource to UX so as to ensure that the budget brings a return on investment.
iv. Long projects — the longer the project, the more resources it consumes; thus, UX becomes ever more important to delivering a return on the investment.

The main methodology used to guarantee the user experience in most projects is user-centred design. Simply put, user-centred design is all about designing with the users’ needs and expected behaviours in mind. It is important for us as UX designers to remember that user-centred design is a means of achieving good UX—and not the only methodology or tool that one can use to ensure optimal UX in a project. UX design is all about guiding product development to ensure how users feel when using our products. It is not a perfect method; sometimes, even with all the UX design know-how in the world behind it, a product will still fail. However, the appropriate use of UX design does offer a much higher chance that a product will be successful for our clients than products developed without the application of UX design principles.
These are the following ways in which you can start as an UX/UI designer:
1. Understand all the design directions: First, the most important thing for you now is understanding of what exactly you want to do. You must choose for yourself what do you want. No one will do it better than you.
1. Do you like working on the visual part of design? — If the answer is yes, then you should become a visual designer (UI).
2. Do you like thinking through the concept of how the product works with the user, make the interface convenient, analyse, test? — then you should become a user experience designer (UX).
3. Do you like both the first one and the second, plus you like to deeply understand the product, be in charge of the product, know and improve it? — then you should become a product designer.
4. Like magazines, posters, flyers, and other POS-materials, like working with company’s identity — then you should be a graphic designer.
5. and so on … Some people know a little bit about every design field. Start by finding out which specialization interests you the most.

2. Study the tools for work: I think that further explanation is not necessary. How can you succeed if you have not mastered the program you need yet? You are lucky if you are a beginner, then you will not have to switch from Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator, you can go directly to Sketch or Figma. Read about their differences and think about what you need to learn. A tip from me, if you have already chosen the design direction you want to follow, do not be lazy check out Headhunter, Linkedin or any other work finding platform and see what employers are looking for, what programs you should know and go from there.
Below you can find a list of the latest programs that can be useful to know:
• Sketch for interface design
• Figma for interface design with collaboration capability
• Balsamiq for creating layouts
• Adobe XD for interface design, prototyping
• Invision App for prototyping and collaboration
• RedPen for collaboration

3. Start paying attention to design: If you decide to become an interface designer, start paying attention to everything and ask yourself the following questions: why did they put the logo here, and not there? And why a certain button is at the end, and not in the beginning? Learn what the site usually consists of? (I’m talking about simple things such as header, body and footer). Asking yourself questions and answering them, scrolling through the options in your head, you will start not only using the website, but evaluating it from a professional point of view.
4. Surround yourself with design: My advice to you is to dive completely into design, start looking at other people’s work every day. There are millions of resources, below are the ones I use:
1. Behance portfolio platform
2. Dribbble portfolio platform
3. Awwwards platform-awarded the title of the best in web design
This practice of viewing other people’s works and portfolios will help you enter the design track, see what others are doing (also in good projects there are job descriptions and decision making descriptions), you will become aware of fashion trends, and will get some inspiration.
5. Watch and Copy Others: Start stupidly repeating and copying other people’s work, the sites that you liked. Just sit down, choose a site, and copy the entire website. I do not advise you to use someone else’s work in your portfolio. Look at it as a lesson.
6. Find mentors and become mentors: The professionals have extraordinarily little free time, especially for beginners. Therefore, I do not advise you to find yourself a victim and bother that person to teach you design. Subscribe to the top designers you like, watch what they read, what conferences they go to, what new programs they study, so without much effort you will be aware of all the popular design events and novelties. If you are a beginner, you can still become a mentor yourself. For example, you can start writing your own blog about your first steps in the design industry. Or you can talk to your friend about interesting things you learned or found. Repeating and talking to someone about your newly acquired knowledge will help you to deeper understand the subject and remember the material better.
7. Take course: Many people ask the question if the courses are really necessary. Everyone is different, some people are more interested in and more comfortable with digging into the new profession at home, watching YouTube videos, reading books and articles. Others need a design environment and atmosphere. If you are the second type, plus you have some financial freedom and time to pass the courses, then I will say yes! Take the course! — they will help. Just make sure you make the right choice, view the comments and reviews, and see how popular the school is.
8. Read: I am just going to give you an example of a couple of books that inspired me and hopefully they will help you to speed up the process:
1. “Eat That Frog! 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time” — Brian Tracy
2. “Burn Your Portfolio: Stuff they don’t teach you in design school, but should” — Michael Janda
3. “Steal Like an Artist: 10 Things Nobody Told You About Being Creative” — Austin Kleon
4. “Show Your Work! 10 ways to share your creativity and get discovered” — Austin Kleon
A huge list of resources for UX designers you can find here:
1. InVision The world’s leading prototyping, collaboration & workflow platform.
2. @muzli the best design inspiration — expertly curated, exactly to your taste.
3. Daily design news and inspiration from all over the web. Everything you need to supercharge your design skills.
4. Curated stories on user experience, usability, and product design.
5. Planet UX UX Planet is a one-stop resource for everything related to user experience.
6. Google Design Google Design is a cooperative effort led by a group of designers, writers, and developers at Google to support and further design and technology.
7. Facebook Design Stories from designers at Facebook offices across the world.
8. Sidebar subscription. This is a resource that will send you a daily email with 5 the most useful popular design articles (these articles are selected by the team inside the project) and this will serve as some kind of ping not to stop.
9. Muzli browser extension. After installing the Muzli browser extension, your newly opened browser window will always have a list of all sorts of things from the design articles and news, to just the design inspirations.

9. Create your portfolio and a resume: The last and the MOST IMPORTANT step when you are looking for a job. Of course, they look and of course you NEED the portfolio. Some vacancies even have the note that candidates without a portfolio will not be considered. Portfolio is your business card; by looking at it the employer will decide whether to start the interview process with you or to choose another candidate. The good news is that there is no need to have your own website (of course, if you have the time and opportunity to create your own site, but if you cannot do it these will help you:
a. Behance portfolio platform
b. Dribbble portfolio platform

Besides if you do have any questions give me a call:

Everyone is not ready to take the risk of investing in forex market. I hasten to add that the foreign exchange market (from now on called forex market), strictly speaking, is not a financial market, because lending and borrowing does not take place in this market. However, since residents (ignoring exchange controls – that exist is some countries– for a moment) are able to borrow or lend offshore, or foreigners are able to lend to or borrow from local institutions, the forex market (which allows these transactions to take place) has a domestic and foreign lending or borrowing dimension, and can be viewed as being closely allied to the domestic financial market. Essentially the forex market is a conduit – as far as investment in financial markets is concerned.
The participants in the forex market are wide-ranging:
i. Authorised dealer banks.
ii. Foreign exchange brokers.
iii. Foreign banks.
iv. Central bank.
v. Government.
vi. Retail clients (household sector).
vii. Non-bank authorised dealers.
viii. Corporate sector.
ix. Arbitrageurs.
x. Speculators.
The forex market is the mechanisms / conventions for the exchange of one currency for another, for example LCC for USD. The banks are dominant in and “make” this market. It is appropriate for banks to make this market because bank deposits are exchanged in the first instance (in the second instance the purchase of a foreign investment is made, for example). The banks make this market in that they are prepared at all times to quote buying (bid) and selling (offer) exchange rates. It will be apparent that in order for a forex market to function there needs to be a demand for and a supply of forex. Demand is the demand for, say, USD, the counterpart of which, say, is the supply of LCC. This cannot be satisfied without a supply of forex (USD), the counterpart of which is a demand for LCC. The forex market brings these demanders and suppliers together.
Currencies are either:
i. Floating: if they are free to respond to supply and demand.
ii. Managed floating: if the central bank intervenes in the market by making purchases / sales of forex to keep the exchange rate within a specified band (i.e. local currency in terms of another currency – usually the USD).
iii. Pegged: if the exchange rate between the local currency and a specified foreign currency (usually the USD) is fixed by decree.
The terms spot and derivative markets also apply to the forex market, and the terms essentially apply to settlement dates. A spot transaction is a deal done now (at T+0) for settlement on a date established internationally by convention / agreement, which is T+2. The forex market also has a substantial derivatives market, the main products of which are forward exchange contracts (outright forwards, forex swaps, forward-forwards, etc), currency swaps, futures and options. The proper financial markets (i.e. the debt and share markets) have the market forms primary and secondary markets. Only primary market applies to the forex market; participants purchase or sell forex and they do an opposite deal if they wish to reverse the initial transaction (as in the derivative markets).
Market type denotes OTC (over the counter) or exchange (= formalised market). The spot forex market is OTC, while the forex derivative markets fall into both camps: forward, swap, and some options markets are OTC, while the futures and options on futures markets are formalised (this applies internationally). Both the trading drivers “order” and “quote” apply to the forex market. The forex market is the domain of the substantial banks, and they trade as market makers. This means that they quote buying (bid) and selling (offer) prices simultaneously to clients. Market convention dictates that the clients are obliged to disclose the size of the deal, but not whether they are buyers of sellers. It is up to clients to find the best quotes (exchange rates) by “shopping around”. The retail equivalent of the quote-driven OTC market is the prices quoted by the Bureaux de Change. Order trading in the forex market takes place in a specialised wholesale segment of the market: the domain of the forex brokers. They trade between the forex market makers, i.e. the banks place orders with the brokers and they communicate these (usually via “squawk boxes”) to the other market makers. There are two classes of brokers: the name-give-up brokers (the smaller ones), where settlement takes place between the principals and not between them and the brokers, and the principal brokers (the larger capital-strong ones) where settlement takes place with the broker. It should be noted that although the word principal is used, these brokers do not act as principals in the sense that they deal for own account.

The trading system of the forex market is telephone-screen. Prices are communicated on telecommunications systems such as Reuters, but these are regarded as indication rates. Deals are accomplished by participants telephoning the banks and obtaining buy/sell (bid/offer) quotes from them; the banks always quote these two-way prices / rates, unless a client asks for just “one side”. As noted, it is accepted practice that the banks quote two-way prices to clients based on a disclosed volume of business, but the client has the right to deal on either side of the quote. While the clients of the banks get quotes from them under the telephone-screen trading system, the banks themselves deal internationally on an ATS system. The forex brokers deal in single capacity (order only), while the banks act as market makers (quote) as we have mentioned. However, there are times when the banks accept specific orders (usually from smaller clients); thus, they deal in dual capacity.
Turnover in the foreign exchange markets worldwide is substantial. The countries that are most actively involved in forex dealing are the UK, the US, Japan, Singapore, Germany, France, Australia, Canada, and the Netherlands.
The role of the forex brokers is also substantial. In many countries the market share of the brokers is over 30%.4 The brokers merely communicate deals / quotes available and, given their market penetration, provide a window into the market. They also offer anonymity to the principals (the banks), meaning that the large deals of banks (which could possibly affect prices) are not communicated to the rest of the market. In the market making forex market reciprocity in dealing is “expected”; the forex brokers preclude such expectations from arising.
As you can see that forex market is highly profitable but is filled with risk. One must understand every twist and turn of the forex market to understand it properly. There are, however, alternative options to forex markets. These are as follows:
1. Content writing
2. Blogging
3. Affiliate marketing
4. YouTube
5. Selling photos
6. Other ways

Let us discuss them one by one.
1. Content writing: You see written content every day on the web pages you visit in the form of articles, blog posts, announcements and press releases (event content), technical and other tutorials, guides and descriptions. However, it’s not the same type of writing that you did in school, like compositions, summaries or dictations. Content writing should be unique and creative enough to immerse users in the essence of the texts and to help them embrace the idea, motivate them for the certain action, convince them of something or provoke certain feelings. In this case, you can succeed and earn money online for free.
You can make anywhere from $500 up $2,000+ per month writing content for diverse web resources. The exact amount depends on your skills, type of content and the volume of of articles you produce. The rates for top content writers can range from as low as $15 dollars an hour to as high as $80, though most fall in the $30-50 range. The prices depend on markets, the writer’s location and experience, as well as his/her expertise.
As a rookie, you’ll be looking for a good start. In our digital era, there are plenty of job boards that give good opportunities to beginners. To start, you can use:
1. Upwork
2. Fiverr
3. Freelance writing jobs
You can find short-term tasks or full-time contract work there. Your specialized skills can get you on a cool project team.
Some skills are required to earn money online without paying anything by writing content. Let’s look through some recommendations that would be very helpful for you at an early stage of your new career:
1. Use a task management program (Trello, Google Sheets or others)
2. Use an image editing program and editing apps (Grammarly or Hemingway)
3. Practice writing constantly
4. Create a portfolio
5. Keep track of all your projects
6. Jot down content ideas
Using a job board is not the only way to start your career as a paid content writer (however, it is the fastest and the easiest). You could start a blog that you then can use to showcase your skills. Another approach is to find related communities on social media (Facebook or LinkedIn) to get a job.
You should keep an eye on the quality of your work and continue to gradually improve your writing up to the highest standards. Here are some common recommendations to make your texts more valuable:
1. Form a killer title and first paragraph
2. Keep it simple, sans exaggeration
3. Edit, read, and edit again
4. Deliver value through your content
5. Conclude with a powerful note
6. Pay attention to the critics
To make it easier to get started, and make quick money online for free, you should pick a niche at first. After mastering that niche, then you can try to become a multitasker. Besides, you should learn different writing styles, but finding your own is crucial.
2. Blogging: Plenty of people have their own blogs, but not everybody seeks to gain benefits from them. However, it is possible and profitable. A blog is a site with mostly written content, where the author writes about a certain topic from his/her own perspective. They then go on to correspond with readers to make direct contact. Blogging is a hobby and it’s a good way to share your knowledge with the world. The reader’s’ interest and positive comments are just a bonus, but they can bring in a lot of revenue if you want. While your blog is gaining popularity and the number of subscribers increases, you can add products or services on your blog to sell.
The easier approach is to sell your blog space for ads. You should not need to find advertisers, because your blog will be popular, and they will have already started hunting you. You can join Google AdSense or other contextual advertising networks at the beginning.
Blogging allows you to make money online from home for free, but how much can you get? The payments depend on you as a blogger. Are you independent or are you employed as a blogger for an established company or website? For the last one, the ranges vary from $19,000 to $79,000 a year. Freelancers can get $10,000 or more for just a post.
Your salary will depend on several factors – the frequency of updates, the relevance and quality of your content, the competitiveness in the niche you’ve chosen and the effectiveness of your marketing strategy to build an audience and generate traffic.
Here’s a general guideline for understanding how to create a functional blog that would generate demand and avoid mistakes:
1. Find a good descriptive blog name that is relevant to your topic
2. Choose a great domain name and domain extension (.com, .net, .org, etc.)
3. Employ a blog host and software to get a template
4. Customize your blog (change the design)
5. Write several blog posts
6. Publish the blog
7. Promote the blog to gain traffic and an audience
8. Start monetization
To succeed in blogging, you should be passionate about your topic, but also about your long-term business model. Analyse competitors and take into consideration potential challenges. If you need more tips, visit Travelpayouts for valid information. Interesting content is paramount and helps grow your income. There are two main ways to monetize – take money for ads or sell something. Other ads may not be as profitable as you want. You allow other people to use your traffic. This means that you may earn money on an ad, but it may not resonate with your audience and cause dissatisfaction. However, such an approach does not demand much of your time and effort, so you can take this route if you don’t care about your “personal space.”
If you are selling a physical or digital product, you should know for sure that your readers need it. Then, you should get your leads’ contact information in exchange for a valid giveaway. You can make a sidebar opt-in box on your site, as well as a popup to encourage users enter their email to win the giveaway.
3. Affiliate marketing: If you want to make money online with no money to start, you can join affiliate marketing and become an affiliate. That means you direct your site/blog visitors to the product and get commissions for purchases they make. In this case, you can combine blogging and affiliate marketing to get more revenue. You can trash the blog and use affiliate arbitrage to resell traffic via PPC. For this purpose, you should know more about making money without a website.
Affiliate rewards usually start at 1% and can reach 10% or even more. The percentage depends on the company’s policy. Additionally, you can get extra promotions and privileges. Note that you do not get money for clicks, but for real purchases. Moreover, if you get $500 today, it does not mean you’ll earn the same amount tomorrow. Affiliates are divided into levels according to their income. Low-level affiliates usually earn up to $100/day. The affiliates at the highest level manage to earn a profit of more $10,000/day.
First, you should find an appropriate affiliate program, taking into consideration the program’s terms and conditions, along with your own preferences. To choose a niche you already like is much better than to start from scratch. You should select an evergreen niche like traveling. You don’t need pay anything to earn via travel, just follow the steps:
1. Join Travelpayouts
2. Get your personal affiliate link to flight tickets, hotels, or other travel services
3. Share this link on your blog or even with your friends
You will be rewarded for each purchase that was made through your affiliate link. After you make your first profit, you can re-invest it to create a blog or continue to develop your current project.
Set up your own blog or website and fill it with content related to the product you promote. Then, start development by using relevant keywords – this is not a fast way to make money, but it’s a good way to build your own source of steady income.
Content can be diverse – product reviews for individual products, comparisons, information-based articles, guides, etc. You should use an appropriate set of marketing tools to gain more traffic – PPC, email marketing or SMM, for example.
Affiliate marketing is not rocket science, but you should acquire some knowledge first, though. Your goal will always be traffic generation to direct users to the merchant’s resource through your affiliate link.
You should care about both free and paid traffic. Utilizing social media marketing is very helpful for getting traffic. Doing videos on social networks is extremely effective today. Don’t forget to use anchor links in order to make them short, friendly and attractive users.
Another crucial skill is copywriting. Note that only a few affiliate programs provide you with ready posts. You will need to prepare articles yourself or hire someone.
4. YouTube: It is possible to make money online with YouTube without having millions of subscribers. You can create your channel with a great earning potential depending on the niche you’ve chosen and the level of engagement that you create. If you already have your own blog and a strong subscriber base, you can start making money quickly. You can also earn via video ads, sponsorships and crowdsourcing. Nobody can say exactly how much you’ll earn, because of many factors influence the result – CPM (cost per million), views, CPC (cost per click), watch time, CTR (click through rate), user retention, traffic source, traffic region and video category all play a role. You only start earning money after 4,000 watch hours for the previous year, plus 1,000 subscribers.
You can forecast your result using the YouTube Money Calculator that was developed to calculate the estimated income from your videos or channel. The calculations are based on the factors listed above. For example, if your daily video views equal 20,000 views/day, you can get from $28.50 up to $47.50 dollars a day.
First, build your channel and then add keywords in the settings to allow people to see your channel in the YouTube SERP according to their requirements. The second step is to add high-quality, yet brief content. Note that uploads must be on a regular schedule and you should track the results of each one.
Your next task is to build an audience to increase monetization and that starts with allowing YouTube to place ads in your videos. Then, you should set up Google AdSense to let the service send you money per click or per view.
To grow as a YouTuber and to improve your content, you should always check your analytics to see how your strategy is performing. Here are some additional tips:
1. Do not use YouTube exclusively for placing videos. Share them wherever possible – social media sites, blogs, etc
2. Join YouTube as a partner to get access to more content creation tools
3. Use services to create free quizzes and polls to encourage people to answer your questions. In this case, you get paid for visitors and you get audience feedback at the same time
4. Improve your content by using various high-quality equipment like software, cameras, tripods, etc
5. Make eye-catching descriptions
Do not view your subscribers as traffic. They are real people and that’s why you should always try to respond to them. Answer their questions and discuss their comments. Your loyalty and readiness for communication is an effective tool to build an audience.
5. Sell Photos: If your main goal is to earn money online without investing, and you are a creative person at the same time, you can earn revenue through stock photography. Stock photos are licensed pictures used by businesses, web-designers, marketing agencies and media companies. How do they work? You take photos and then sell them to global companies like Shutterstock or Fotolia.
There are many of stock photography websites. First, you should sign up on the stock photography website you decide to go with. One of the most popular ones is Shutterstock. Here are some simple steps to get started:
1. Sign up on the website
2. Download high-quality images
3. Upload content with their platform to get tips for success
4. Earn a fee every time your image is downloaded
Note that you will need an account at You will have to provide personal information and verify your email. You can provide some photos, illustrations, or videos for your debuted submission debut.
Choose a single topic to sell more – business, everyday life, medical or education, for example. Take everything that happens every day into consideration to help catch a moment and make your photo extremely natural. You should always look at what is happening on TV and in normal life. You can draw graphics as well, with the aid of drawing tablets (they make digital art easier and faster).
Most of the large stocks want you to shoot authentic people and things that inspire you. At the same time, some contributors track hits and competitor sales and want similar photos. Therefore, to become an expert you should focus on both your own preferences and the company’s policy.
6. Other Way:
1. Client work through digital marketing to sell websites and other tools for promotion online. For example, you can create logos or business cards if you are a designer. If you are keen on copywriting and SEO, you can fill websites with relevant content.
2. Complete small surveys providing your feedback and opinions which can earn from $1 up to $20 per one survey.
3. Join a PTC websites to click and read the apps. It takes just up to 30 seconds to view one ad and be paid for it.
4. You can become a captcha solver who reads captcha images and types the related symbols. It only takes two hours a day and lets you put $2 for every thousand captchas in your pocket.
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call:

To start social media marketing successfully, you have to understand how social media is influencing corporate culture of today. The term Social Media needs no explanation, as we are quite sure that by now everyone, young and old alike, has heard of it, knows of it and is utilising it in some form or another. But for those who do not, “social media is any media or platform that allows one to be social, or get social online by creating/sharing content, news, photos, videos etc. with other people.” Social Media has become an inevitable part of our daily life, and like it or not, it is here to stay. In fact, the number of mentions in social media is quoted nowadays to highlight the importance of the issues and the public support or otherwise to the issue. All organisations/institutions of all types now have a social media presence since they have become aware of the enormous power, reach and potential of this medium.
If we separate the two terms: the term “social” refers to interacting with other people and sharing or receiving information, while the term “media” refers to the main means of mass communication, which in the traditional sense includes TV, Radio and Newspapers collectively. But, in the term “social media” the media refers to “web-based” communication tools that are used to enable people to share content or converse with each other. Thus, “All web-based applications which allow for creation / exchange of user- generated content and enable interaction between the users can be classified as “Social Media”. These could be in the form of Social Networking Sites (Facebook, Twitter, Google+), Blogs, Internet forums, Bookmarking sites, Online community sites, Q & A sites and Mobile messaging, Chat apps etc.”
Here are a List of Top 20 social media sites around the world:
1. Facebook
2. WhatsApp
3. QQ
4. FB Messenger
5. Qzone
6. WeChat
7. Tumblr
8. Instagram
9. Twitter
10. Skype
11. Baidu Tieba
12. Viber
13. Sina Weibo
14. Line
15. Snapchat
16. Yy
17. Vkontakte
18. Pinterest
19. BBM
20. LinkedIn

Social media has impacted us in more ways than one, not just on an individual level, but also the society, the way we do business and politics. The way we connect to each other, have conversations online, conduct business, maintain relationships, or simply gather information and interact with others has changed drastically, thus affecting our social behavioural patterns. Social media can have a strong influence on a person/group/or community through the dissemination of information via social networking channels, thereby having the power to influence the way people think or act or react to a stimulus.
Kaplan and Haenlein classified the social media into six different types based on their media research and published it in an article in Business Horizons (2010). They classified the social media as:
a) Collaborative projects (e.g. Wikipedia)
b) Blogs and Microblogs (e.g. Twitter)
c) Content Communities (e.g. Youtube)
d) Social Networking Sites (e.g. Facebook)
e) Virtual Game Worlds (e.g. World of Warcraft)
f) Virtual Social Worlds (e.g. Second Life)
Honeycomb Framework of Social Media Functionality includes the following:
1. Identity: The extent to which users reveal themselves
2. Presence: The extent to which users know if others are available
3. Relationships: The extent to which users relate to each other
4. Reputation: The extent to which users know the social standing of others and content
5. Groups: The extent to which users are ordered or form communities
6. Conversations: The extent to which users communicate with each other
7. Sharing: The extent to which users exchange, distribute and receive content
Using this honeycomb framework, they have tried to explain the implications that each block can have for how firms should engage with the social media. The figure shows how different social media activities are defined by the extent to which they focus on some or all of these blocks. For example – LinkedIn focuses primarily on Identity, Reputation and Relationships, whereas YouTube focuses primarily on Sharing, Conversations, Groups and Reputation.
The Conversation Prism 4.0 (TCP) by Brian Solis is as follows:
Halo 1: You: That is the centre of all conversations, with Brand You. The idea here is that you should explore all the social networks and opportunities that would work best for you (your brand) so that you can gain or introduce value. Here, Value could be defined in terms of not just traditional ROI, but in terms of the brand resonance or equity, relationships, leadership, intelligence etc.
Halo 2: Vision. Purpose. Value. Commitment. Transparency: What is your vision for social media, the purpose or reason for being social and if it can be justified logically against other investment opportunities? What is the value you intend to deliver and how will you access and communicate this value towards the social interactions and relationships that are involved here? However, it is also imperative to understand the level of commitment that would be necessary to provide and gain value as you scale, so you need to be careful before investing in social media. With the advance in technology, the networks, and nodes of doing business are becoming more human and information is readily available at our fingertips thereby bringing in more transparency in all that we do or say.
Halo 3: Brand, Lines of business and Corporate Functions: Social is a way of conducting business functions today, be it HR, Sales and Marketing, Communications, Brand Development, Service or Community. All these functions are essential to mature business perspective from a command and control mentality to that of engagement and openness.
Halo 4: Always Be Improving (ABI) – Listen. Learn. Adapt: The last of the four concentric circles in the Conversation Prism reminds us of the importance of listening in a conversation, and in doing so being able to learn and adapt so as to improve all that we do inside or outside the company, thus, being in the “Always Be Improving” (ABI) mode. Therefore, each of the concentric circles is designed to work together, to help you improve strategies and results to improve the way you work, how you build relationships with employees and customers, the ability to create and improve better products, services and experiences, and overall, the role you play and the stature you earn as a result.
Social Media Landscape 2016 by Fred Cavazza is as follows:
1. Publishing – with blog platforms (WordPress, Blogger, TypePad, Medium, PostHaven, Live Journal, Svbtle, Over-Blog, SquareSpace), wikis (Wikipedia, Wikia) and hybrid publishing / sharing services like Tumblr on MySpace.
2. Sharing – with video platforms (YouTube, Vevo, Vimeo, Vine, Dailymotion, China’s YouKu and new live streaming services like Twitch and Periscope), document platforms (SlideShare, Scribd), photo platforms (Instagram, Flickr, Imgur, 500px), picture platforms (Pinterest, Fancy, Lyst, Ello, Behance), music platforms (Spotify, Deezer, SoundCloud), links platforms (Delicious, and places platforms (Foursquare, Swarm)
3. Messaging Platforms – from western companies (WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, iMessage, Hangouts, Telegram, Skype, SnapChat, Kik, Viber, Tango) and asian ones (WeChat, Line, KakaoTalk, Nimbuzz)
4. Conversation platforms – (Github, Quora, Reddit, 4chan, Disqus, Muut), and there asian equivalents (Sina Weibo, Tencent Weibo, Tieba Baidu)
5. Professional Communcation Tools – (Slack, HipChat, Chime, TalkSpirit, Caliber) and collaboration ones (Yammer, Chatter)
6. Professional social networks – (LinkedIn, Viadeo, Xing, Plaxo), niche social networks (Ning, Nextdoor, Houzz), western and eastern mainstream social networks (Tagged, StudiVZ, VKontakte, Odnoklassniki, Facenama) as well as asian one (Qzone, RenRen, Mixi, Kaixin001, Douban, Pengyou), and last but not least, dating services (Badoo, OKcupid, Tinder, Bumble, Happn).
Now once you have understood this let us move further. These are 12 points that will help you not only to start in social media but also achieve success:
Step 1 – Have a plan: Start with why. There are plenty of people having a go at social media. Some of them are doing it because they think they should or because everyone else is doing it. But without a clearly defined ‘why’ then it will be difficult for you to maximise its benefits and focus your efforts. Neither will it be easy to measure results and adapt your approach accordingly. For some people, using social media is about establishing or building a personal brand. For others it is about learning or supporting continuing professional development. For others still, it is about developing a company brand, supporting other sales and marketing efforts, or simply finding new customers. Some users just want to join or build a professional community for networking purposes. It can even be about job hunting. Whatever your reason for using social media it’s a good idea to have some aims and desired outcomes. Everything else flows from there. So first of all, decide why you are doing it at all and what you want to achieve from it. We suggest you write them down somewhere. This does not need to be a huge piece of work or a series of particularly big, hairy or audacious goals. A few small goals at first are just fine. The next thing to think about is what success would look like for you. You can measure social media through likes, shares, comments and reach. You can measure it too in the sense of sales, referrals or brand recognition. There are some things that can’t easily be measured – the value of connections, learning or long-term relationships. It’s a matter for you as to whether you feel the need to measure your efforts or determine a return on your investment. If it’s right for you, then identify the most appropriate measures for you and build it into your plan. Review it accordingly on a regular basis and change your strategy depending on what those measures are telling you.
Step 2 – Create your personal policy: We have now got a ‘why’ so it’s time for a ‘how’. This will help you to best plan your use of social media – and create your personal policy. Go back to your ‘why’ from Step 1 to help you think through how you want to use social media. Here is an example. We use social media to engage with other people in our profession, learn from others, share, and collaborate. We also use it to chat and share with friends. These two vastly different uses for social media take place on different platforms. For professional activities we mainly use LinkedIn, personal blogs, Slack and Twitter. There, we are very open about our work and our views. For personal photographs and updates, or just keeping in touch with old friends, we mostly use Facebook and Instagram. There is a little cross-over on Twitter because that is one of the platforms that bridges the personal and professional, and that is an accepted part of the platform. Our professional activity is open and accessible without barriers. Our personal use of social media is private and behind privacy settings. We never share pictures of the children on any platform or allow anyone else to do so. This isn’t meant to say that you shouldn’t, or that we are judging anyone who does, it’s simply what we have chosen to do: it’s part of our personal policy. There are options about what you share and to whom on every social media platform.
Here are a few things to think about:
1. Is your social media use personal or professional? If it’s exclusively for professional purposes, we would suggest you don’t have protected or private accounts. Generally speaking, if you want people to connect with your or your ideas, you want to make it easy for them to do so.
2. If you want to use social media for personal use as well as professional, where will you draw the line? For example, will you accept friend requests on Facebook from colleagues?
3. How much personal material will you share? It is absolutely fine if the answer is none. But there are at least a few personal items you might want to share. Firstly, it is a good idea to include a photograph – this will help you to connect with other people. You will want to say a little about who you are and what you do (we will talk about social media biographies – also known as ‘bios’ - later).
4. You may also want to share a (broad) location so that people know where you are based. This doesn’t have to be too specific; you can just refer to a city or an area.

Step 3 – Decide on your message and audience: We have considered the overarching need to have a plan and some of the first elements that it should contain. Now it is necessary to take that idea to a deeper level – not just your overall professional aim for social media, but what is it that you want to share – and with whom? What is your message and purpose? This step is about deciding what content you want to create – your central message. You might want to tweet and post about all sorts of things, but it helps to have a focus when using social media in a professional context. This is all linked back to Step 1 – your why.
Let us begin with an example.
We both work in Human Resources. Gemma writes a popular HR blog. The subjects on the blog range across all aspects of work, people, and organisations, but many of the posts reflect her key interests, wellbeing, flexible working, and social media. The aim of her blog is to provide challenge and useful content to others who work in similar fields. As a freelance writer, there is also a secondary aim of generating more work, increasing her online profile and therefore income. There is a defined aim and direction. It is unlikely that she would use her blog to talk about, for example, football. If it did, those regular readers who are signed up to receive updates would be confused and might just stop reading. From time to time Gemma gets request to either advertise on her blog, or to write content for it on her behalf. She’s very clear that the blog is for her words only, and isn’t to be monetarised in itself, so never accepts these requests. We know people who use social media for a whole range of reasons relating to their professional life. They have a variety of aims and objectives.
Here are just a few:
1. An academic who uses social media to advocate for a particular type of academic publishing practice, and blogs extensively about it. Their target audience is other academics. They want to raise awareness and challenge existing practice.
2. An artist who shares examples of their work on social media – his target audience is extremely wide as his work may be enjoyed by almost anyone. He expressly encourages others to share with others if they like his content.
3. An author who shares some of their thinking on a fairly niche topic with an aim of increasing awareness and engaging interest with this subject area – and also sell her books.
4. A fitness instructor who shares her methodology and beliefs around exercise and nutrition – her central message is about making exercise practical and realistic for busy people. Her target audience is potential customers.
5. A sales and marketing leader who has driving sales and brand awareness as his sole focus. He employs a vast range of methods for doing so, but for him it is all about brand.
6. A leader of a large public-sector organisation who uses social media to listen to his employees and service users, to respond to them in a timely fashion in a place where they interact and to share key messages from the organisation itself. His audience is potentially everyone living and working in a particular city.

If you are still not totally sure what your key messages or focus should be, here’s a couple of things to think about:
• How can you add value to your professional online network?
• What do you stand for?
• What do you want to promote?
• If you are still not totally sure what your key messages or focus should be, here’s a couple of things to think about:
• How can you add value to your professional online network?
• What do you stand for?
• What do you want to promote?

Step 4 – Get your image right: Images are mostly going to be photographs of you (probably doing whatever it is you do too add value) and also the images that you chose to share across social media. Choosing good quality and relevant images can add value to your social media activity in many ways. To being with, let us look at images of you, particularly in your social media profiles. There are some real dos and don’ts here. Firstly, you need a photograph on each platform you are using. Some people do not bother but it looks unprofessional and will limit your interactions and therefore the number of people that will choose to connect with you. People like to see who they are connecting with. Social media images need to be tailored to the platform. If you are using a platform entirely for professional use, your chosen image needs to reflect that. Avoid pictures that aren’t of you such as brand logos (unless it is a branded account), or - and this actually happens - your car. Also avoid pictures that are of you but are a wedding photograph, your children, or friends, or are clearly a cropped social photo. For a professional networking site use a simple headshot with a clear background. If you do not have a professional headshot, that’s no problem: just ask a friend to take a simple picture of you on their (or your) phone against a plain wall. For consistency, especially if you intend to use social media exclusively for professional reasons, you may wish to use the same image on all social media platforms. This will make your efforts look clear and uniform. However, for slightly fewer formal platforms, or one (like Twitter) that crosses over the professional and personal, you can be a little more flexible on your preferred image. We still recommend a clear headshot presenting you in a way that aligns with how you want to be viewed by your followers or connections. This will of course vary from person to person. Your image will appear next to all the things you post and therefore it influences how people “hear” what you say. Sharing images is a key part of interacting on social media, and there are other ways that it can benefit your profile. Some professions and businesses lend themselves well to sharing images. Consider a party planner, florist, fitness instructor or cake decorator. All these professionals can benefit from visually sharing their products or services on the right social media platform (an image-based platform such as Instagram or Pinterest would be particularly suited for static images, YouTube is best for video content). It’s often useful to share images from conferences or events to enhance your content. Some general rules apply here. Where you are sharing images of others, make sure that they are aware and are happy to be included. Images can be informal, but still need to be professional and present you appropriately. Images can also enhance blog posts or articles. If you do not have an appropriate image of your own to use, consider using one from an image site – just always be mindful of copyright or use copyright-free images. It’s also worth taking the time to think about what you don’t want people to see. If you have used social media for personal reasons either in the past or present, you might not want professional contacts to see this content. This is especially important for young professionals. Is there anything from your teenage or student years on social media? Now is the time to check and remove what you would not want a prospective employer or professional contact to see.
Step 5 – Write your elevator pitch: Most social media platforms provide an opportunity to have a headline summary saying something about who you are, although these vary in terms of length and style. On Twitter it’s known as your ‘bio’ and you have 160 characters to play with. On LinkedIn, you have the opportunity of both a headline and profile. On Instagram it’s your profile and over on Facebook and WhatsApp it’s a bio again. On blogging sites like WordPress you have the option to say much more – even having an ‘about you’ page. For the purposes of this chapter we’ll use the term ‘bio’ for ease. Your bio tells people about you. It should give people an idea about who you are and – importantly – what sort of content you will share. Your bio will encourage people to connect with you on social media – or not. This is your first opportunity to connect – so make it count. It’s important to tailor your bio to the platform in question; what works on Twitter won’t work for LinkedIn for example. On LinkedIn, your headline will automatically default to your job title unless you change it. You can do this in your profile settings. You can change this to anything you like, although we would encourage you not to use gimmicky language (no ‘ninjas’ or ‘gurus’ please, unless this is your actual job role). Keep this brief and make it stand out. You can use your profile to go into more detail – think of this like your summary paragraph on a CV, explaining briefly who you are and describing your key skills, knowledge and experience. You can even include hyperlinks to other online content that refers to you or your work. Don’t be afraid to sell yourself and highlight your successes – this is the very purpose of LinkedIn. Some platforms will allow for more informality. Twitter is a good example of this. Here it’s considered acceptable to say something about the work that you do – but also a little more about what you are interested in or passionate about. Don’t forget to include a link to your website, blog or other social media profiles. If your social media accounts are primarily promoting your business or services, make sure that your bio includes a succinct summary of what you do and give clear instructions – or better still, direct links – on how to contact you. If you aren’t sure quite what to say in your bio, check out bios written by others in similar roles or professions. This will help you understand the etiquette for each particular platform. There are a couple of things to note. It really isn’t necessary to include a statement to the effect of ‘all views are mine’. This really goes without saying – who else’s would they be? Whether you choose to identify yourself as working for a particular employer is normally also a matter of personal choice – but it’s always worth checking if your company has a policy on this first. Some professions or professional organisations (for example, medical professions) have specific guidance around social media use, so it is worth considering whether this could also apply to you and your work. Finally, do not forget to update your bio if things change, or just to keep it fresh or current.
Step 6 – Play to your strengths: This is a fairly simple step and should form part of your overall plan – as well as influence your platform choice. When it comes to using social media professionally, make it as easy to fit into your life as possible. You can do this through using the tools we will discuss in a later chapter but also by using the skills and strengths that you already have. Here are some examples: If you enjoy chatting to people and think you come across well verbally, why not try recording a podcast? Podcasts are simple to record and publish and there are low cost options for publication through sites such as Podbean. If you are handy with the video camera on your phone, then create a YouTube video channel. There are cheap (and free) apps which even enable video editing on your phone, such as KineMaster. If you are good at written communication and think you can get a point across in 400-500 words, then consider writing a blog. WordPress is the most popular site to host blogs and can be used for free. If you have products or services to showcase that look great and you can take a good photograph (or perhaps you already have a bank of images) then look for platforms that suit image sharing and make the most of them. The popularity of the auction site eBay means that equipment such as photo light boxes are readily available to make your products look as good as possible online. There are good options for editing photos built into most smartphones, with many more apps available for the more creative (for example, PicStitch to put more than one image together, or Over which lets you add text to images, amongst other things). Bring your existing strengths to your social media usage for maximum effect.
Step 7 – Pick your platforms: You can’t do every platform and do them well – and often enough - to gain maximum benefits from their use. Whatever it is you are considering using social media for, our advice is to pick two platforms (three at most) and focus on using them to best effect, rather than trying to be everywhere. If necessary, start with just one platform until you build your experience and confidence, and whilst you refine your message and content. So, which platform do you choose from the multitude available? To a large extent, this goes back to your Step 1 ‘why’ – just what is it you are trying to get out of your social media use? The second element that it is important to consider is where the people are that you want to connect with. Where are your customers, stakeholders, or employees? There is plenty of data, freely available, that will tell you more about who is using which platform, particularly around user demographics. You can also find information about the best times to post for maximum reach on a platform by platform basis. Different platforms come and go, and popularity levels fluctuate too. For example, Facebook started out on a University campus for students, but as we write this book, its fastest growing demographic is grandparents. The students have gone elsewhere.
Here is some advice on platforms that doesn’t depend too much on changing demographics or trends:
1. If you are looking for work or to make professional connections, you should consider having a LinkedIn profile. As a platform, LinkedIn has its limitations: it is unfortunately a place that is subject to sales spam and it isn’t quite as easy to build personal relationships in the same way that you can on other platforms (more on that later). However, it is a default place to be. Many recruiters will check out your profile on LinkedIn. The platform also makes it easy to showcase your work and skills, through customisable headlines, its own blogging platform and space for links to your work and publications.
2. Blogging can be a powerful way of generating traffic to your website and can be used to demonstrate your areas of professional expertise. It gives you content to share on the other social media platforms and is more in-depth than the fast interactions of somewhere like Twitter (although that is an excellent place to link to your blog). There are many blogging platforms and are mostly free (although some have some paid for options such as bespoke URLs that are worth considering).
3. Whatever platform you choose, ensure that you have a method for monitoring people interacting with you in this space – and respond accordingly. This shows that you are listening and engaging. For example, check comments on your posts, blogs or videos. Check your notifications on Twitter – who has mentioned your Twitter handle and why? If you find that you are being criticised via a social media platform, then we recommend acknowledging the comments and offering a way of discussing the situation in more detail away from the platform (privately – through direct message – provide an email address or a phone number to facilitate this).
4. If you have multiple accounts on the same social media platform (for example, you have a more than one Twitter account, or you have both personal and business Facebook accounts, make sure you are sharing from the correct one every time!
5. Don’t overshare and keep your content suitable for the platform. Each social media site is different – the best way to learn what works where is to be guided by other users.

Step 8 – Connect and engage: So, now you know who what your key message and audience is. It’s time to connect with them in your chosen space. Most social media platforms are designed so that people can follow your content easily. On Facebook, a simple ‘like’ of your business page will ensure that future content appears in that individual’s timeline. The same applies to following a business page on LinkedIn. An important principle to remember here is that at its heart, social media is about dialogue – not broadcasting. Too many people using social media professionally just talk about themselves, or their products and services. We recommend avoiding the hard sell. There is little we dislike more than accepting a LinkedIn connection request and a few minutes later getting an email from them to ‘introduce themselves’ – along with a handy link to their website or product. If your focus for social media is about promoting your business, you should aim not to mention your products or services more than once in every five social shares, as a maximum. It’s important to strike a balance – and that balance needs to be weighted heavily in favour of being an interesting and useful member of your professional community as opposed to telling people about yourself – and there are plenty of people using social media for just that. If you put the connection and engagement first, then the professional benefits will come in time. A good starting point on Twitter is joining in on a Twitter chat. Many professions have them. We both work in the field of Human Resources, and often join in on HR and Learning and Development specific chats. These typically happen at the same time each week, have a moderator, use a dedicated hashtag and will feature a nominated topic or a question for discussion each time. It’s worth searching for chats in your profession as they can be a great way to get to know others and expand your network. Some sites have their own etiquette about connecting. LinkedIn is one such site. It’s possible on LinkedIn to send someone a ‘blank’ connection request. This is a request to connect but without an accompanying note or introduction to yourself. This is generally considered okay when you know someone, but if you don’t it is polite to include a comment with you request. Think about the equivalent in real life – how would you behave at a face-to-face networking event? Once a social media platform gets to know you are your interests, it will suggest people or accounts with which you might want to engage. Over on LinkedIn check out ‘people you might know’. It’s often (but not always) uncanny. Facebook and Instagram will put these suggestions into your timeline for ease. Twitter will also recommend accounts to follow and tailor your trends to topics that are relevant to your interests. When it comes to engaging with others on social media, we are advocates of joining in with conversations – as well as starting them. Another good way to increase engagement with your content is to make an express request for feedback. For example, if you write a blog, consider posing a question in your post and inviting people to comment. Share a post on your chosen social media platform and ask others what they think about it. Consider creating a poll or even a competition. If you are conducting research, then it is fine to say you would be obliged if others would share the content. If you are polite and do not do it too often, many of your followers or connections will be happy to comment or join in. Finally, don’t forget to take your connections offline. Social media can lead to effective professional relationships. We have known people who first engaged through a social media network to have formed effective collaborations as well as great friendships. So, take opportunities to meet your online connections too – where that is safe and sensible.
Step 9 – Share often: Sharing content will help you build a network and make connections. Everyone likes someone who shares their content. Sharing interesting content that you have found makes you a useful member of your professional community. When it comes to sharing, you need to think about what, when and where. Hopefully by now you have made your platform choices so your decision about ‘where’ to share has been addressed: it’s time to turn to what and when. Some people find it hard to know exactly what to share when they first start using social media. As we said earlier, it’s important to avoid only sharing your own content. What you share should also ideally align with your bio: for example, if you state in your bio that you work in marketing but spend all your time tweeting about football, there’s a disconnect there that might mean you lose followers. There are a few ways that you can collate good information to share with your network. When you have connections within your profession, you will find that articles and things of interest will land naturally in your timeline because of the people you follow on each platform. Depending on how many and what kind of people or accounts you follow, you may find the vast majority – or even all – of the content you share there. On Twitter you can check out ‘moments’ to see what is trending or what others are talking about. You can also search relevant industry or profession hashtags to see what people are currently talking about as a way of finding good content. It’s also worth checking out bloggers in your specific field as they will be sharing their own work. Follow relevant news outlets or publications for your professional field. And of course, share your own content and talk about your own work – just make sure that it isn’t your entire timeline. Content that you share should be interesting, relevant, thought-provoking – and it should be something you would be happy for your boss to see. When and how often to share varies depending on the platform itself and who it is you are trying to reach. On slower-moving platforms like LinkedIn or Facebook, you might only need to share something once a day – if that. Over on Twitter a single tweet has a very short shelf life as most people just don’t scroll back that far in their timeline. More regular sharing is required on Twitter to maintain a steady presence. Data is available online about when is the best time to post content on what social media platform. As these analytics will change over time, your best source of up to date information is to do a search for the platform you want to know more about in real time. Once you start typing “best time to post on…” into Google, you will see there are a lot of options! It is also important to experiment by engaging at different times and different days to see what works for you and your network. The broad data is useful, but it is also about what the particular crowd you are trying to reach are doing – and your use of social media might be more niche. When you get established on social media, you can get data about your own efforts. Blogging platforms will give you data on who is visiting your site and when, along with how long they spend there. You can find out your most popular posts, days and times. Twitter has an analytics menu that you can find in your settings which will also show you your reach, most interacted shares and top followers. LinkedIn can tell you who has visited you profile and how many people have seen your posts – additional features are available for a fee. Another sharing option is the conference or event share. Most conferences these days will have a social media backchannel – official or otherwise. There is usually a hashtag, and often a number of people tasked with getting content on that hashtag (sometimes known as a “blogsquad”) to give a virtual element to the event for people who can’t be there in person. If you are at an event, a great way of sharing is to tweet, live blog or take photos in real time and share them with your network. Tell your followers where you are and share what you are learning. Make sure whatever you share uses the event hashtag for maximum exposure.
Step 10 – Use tools:
Hootsuite / TweetDeck: These are platforms that can help you organise your social media accounts (especially useful if you are trying to manage more than one account on the same platform). They allow for scheduling of tweets so that you can plan social media content to be shared on an ongoing basis, without the need to action each time. Just be careful about it. For example, if there is a serious news incident or national disaster, make sure you turn them off, quickly. Also recognise that there are limitations to too much scheduling as it limits your ability to interact with responses.
Lists: A useful way to organise your Twitter timeline is a list. This simply means that you create lists of people and accounts, in order to organise or categorise. This means that when you want to catch up, you do not have to check back through a busy timeline but can just select a few key areas to view. You can set up multiple lists or follow those set up by other people.
Apps: There are specific apps (such as ‘If That Then This’) that allow for simple sharing. You set the rules on the app. For example, you can engage a setting to ensure that when you post content on your business Facebook page, it will automatically also post it on Twitter or LinkedIn (sometimes called ‘cross-posting’). Also make use of quick tools built into the site you are using. For example, if you use WordPress to blog, you can activate settings that will automatically share the blog on social media platforms of your choice rather than doing this task manually. If you want to invest financially in your social media activity, there are even more tools that you can use. For example, there are social media listening services that monitor every mention of your name (or the name of your business) and send detailed reports.
Step 11 – Dive in – and be authentically you: It has been said that to get social media, you have to do social media. It is fine to ‘lurk’ a little to begin with (by which we mean just watching and consuming content, without engaging too much). But you will get the most out of social media when you fully engage. This does not mean spending hours on it every day – social media is continuous, so you could never consume or keep up with everything. It is however important to make it a habit – and commit to it. If you need to, until using social media becomes more natural to you, consider scheduling yourself a little time each day. You could also consider setting yourself a manageable target, such as publishing one blog post each week. If you want to build connections and join online communities, you will not fully realise the benefit unless you dive right in. No one wants to see an abandoned (or apparently so) account. It is not difficult to fit social media into your daily life as you can dip in and out to suit you. Whether you are waiting for a train, in the back of a taxi, standing in a queue for a coffee, you can just drop into your feed, see what is occurring, and make a quick contribution. It is easy to tell when someone is not being authentic. Being yourself is not the same as sharing everything about yourself. Some people on social media use it to boast or exclusively present their best (and highly polished) version of themselves. You will find people who talk often about what a great person they are. In our experience, these people are not much different when you meet them in real life (‘IRL’). Remember that you can be authentic without sharing your every thought or moment. If you are focused on building a professional personal brand on social media, consider carefully what discussions to engage in or what content to share. Some issues will always be divisive – politics and religion being just a couple of obvious examples.
Step 12 – Stay safe:
1. Do not put your full date of birth or even just the specific day of the year on a publicly available social media platform. If a fraudster can determine your birth year, they have your full date of birth – a critical piece of identify information. For the same reason, don’t put your year of birth in your handle (we have seen people with handles like @Gem78 – maybe she’s the 78th Gem to sign up, or maybe it’s the year of her birth).
2. If you have decided that some of your content is private and just for friends (such as on a closed Instagram profile) then don’t accept friends or follow requests from people you don’t know.
3. Many smartphone apps have location settings within them, which, when you use your phone to upload photos for example, will show where they were taken. This could therefore give people a good idea where you live or work. If you don’t want to share this information, go into your phone settings and turn off location settings.
4. Check the privacy settings on each social media platform that you are using to check what you are sharing with whom. Check these every once in a while, as from time to time the app or platform may update these.
5. Use strong passwords for all your social media platforms to reduce the risk of them being compromised – whatever you do, do not use Password1 or the like! It is good practice to ensure you do not use any recognisable words because programmes exist to help hackers identify dictionary words. The best advice we have seen is to use mnemonics for a memorable phrase e.g. IaaaTui2019 – “I am an awesome Twitter user in 2019”, obviously. Use different passwords for each of the platforms you are using. Where they are an option, set additional security measures such as security questions.
6. Work on the basis that nothing you ever post on social media can ever be truly, 100% private. Even when a conversation or profile is private, they can still be copied and distributed without your knowledge. Consider keeping your really personal stuff personal.
7. Be careful ‘checking in’ to places such as hotels on certain sites such as Facebook if you have a public profile. Do you really want people to know where you are?
8. Be cautious about what links you click. If something does not look right, do not engage with it.
9. Think before you post

This is a small glimpse of what happens on the Internet every minute during these Covid-19 times:
1. Zoom hosts 208,333 participants in meetings
2. Netflix users stream 404,444 hours of video
3. Instagram users post 347,222 stories
4. YouTube users upload 500 hours of video
5. Twitter gains 319 new users
6. Facebook users share 150,000 messages
7. LinkedIn users apply 69,444 jobs
8. Amazon ships 6,659 packages
9. WhatsApp users share 41,666,667 messages
10. Consumers spend $1,000,000 online

. Besides if you do have any questions give me a call:

If I go by your definition, I am getting the notion that by particular worldwide company you are referring to an MNC. You must understand few important things when it comes to MNC:
A MNC is a company that does business in more than one country. Transnational company produces, markets, invests and operates across the world. It is an integrated global enterprise that links global resources with global markets at profit. These companies have sales offices / manufacturing locations in many countries.
a) MNCs consider opportunities globally
b) MNCs invest their assets globally
c) MNCs engage in international production
d) Operations in number of countries
e) Managerial decisions based on global perspective.
f) MNCs produce the products in one or few countries and sell them in most countries. Transnational corporations produce the products in each country based on specific needs of customers of that country and market these. A transnational corporation mostly uses the inputs of the host country where it operates unlike an MNC.
Companies become MNC because of several reasons for instance:
i. Protection from uncertainties of business cycles, political policies of the domestic country
ii. Tap global markets
iii. Grow business
iv. Increase profits
v. Reduce costs
vi. Overcome tariffs – In some countries, the companies need not pay tariffs, if they manufacture in that country and export those goods. So, such companies set up manufacturing facilities in those countries. E.g. NAFTA countries like USA, Canada, Mexico (NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement).
vii. For technological advantage – instead of licensing, companies produce goods directly
Advantages of MNC are as follows:
i. Contributes to economic and industrial growth,
ii. employment generation,
iii. access to latest technology,
iv. more business for domestic suppliers,
v. more competition for domestic business,
vi. reduction of imports,
vii. favourable effect on balance of payments,
viii. domestic consumers get plethora of products and services.
ix. MNCs who export also earn foreign exchange.
x. Good utilization of natural resources.
Drawbacks of MNC are as follows:
i. Unsuitability of technology to host country,
ii. MNCs may not operate within the boundaries of national sovereignty,
iii. they may indulge in monopolistic practices,
iv. indiscriminate use of natural resources,
v. focus only on consumer goods but not capital goods or development of infrastructure in host country,
vi. pollution, dumping of material,
vii. use of outdated technology to host country.

Advantages of MNC to home country are as follows:
i. Create demand for home country products,
ii. create employment for home country people,
iii. earn forex for home country, produce products required by home country consumers by producing in foreign countries with foreign resources,
iv. save domestic country from environmental pollution,
v. generates profits for home country by earning profits through business operations in host countries.
Disadvantages of MNC to home country are as follows:
i. Transfer capital to other countries, unfavourable balance of payments
ii. Less employment opportunities in home
iii. May neglect industrial development in home country as transnational companies follow secular approach
Characteristics of an ideal MNC:
a) Lose its parent identity and blend in where it operates
b) Citizen of the world (absence of a polycentric approach)
c) Takes up CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) efforts
d) Meet customer requirements across the world
e) Seek efficiencies
f) Seek new technology and new knowledge
g) Act within the framework of local law, rules and regulations

The ideal MNC transcends the national boundaries and detaches itself from narrow national considerations. Therefore some people refer to MNCs as transnational corporations. A transnational corporation is globally integrated i.e. its considerations are for the entire worldwide operations as a whole; but at the same time, it respects the local (national) requirements.
Multinational companies with total control from home country or companies with decentralized operations in different countries move towards becoming a transnational corporation. Global companies with a firm base in the home country and tight control over foreign operations also move towards becoming a transnational corporation.
Developing countries should note that the size of a country’s domestic market may not be a limiting factor in the establishment of successful MNCs abroad. Small countries like Switzerland and Finland have spawned MNCs like Nestle, ABB and Wartsila. The growth of businesses need not follow a linear path. Companies can take the international route and scale up their business.
Off shoring is shifting an activity abroad. R&D can be outsourced but there is a risk of losing protection offered by intellectual property rights. Back office processes, technical support functions like data entry, data processing, secretarial services, telemarketing, legal transcription and business process outsourcing are services that are generally subject to off shoring.
Data processing, database services, software implementation, financial services, animation services and health services are also subject to off shoring. Medical transcription, diagnostics, testing and medical advisory services can be outsourced outside domestic country.
Now once you have understood this, you will also understand the fact that most of the companies which operate worldwide do have a strong social networking base as well i.e. social media to make it’s presence felt in the business market.
The reality of individuals getting intricately connected with each other through the social media (as seen above) cannot be ignored by any business, whether it is a large corporation or an SME. Customer has always been a king and businesses are constantly trying to reach out and seek attention of their consumers for new leads, feedback, research, and service. Ever since social media has become the new destination for millions of people, it is the perfect platform for businesses to carry out or support some of their business functions online. Today, more than 90 percent of the adult online population is using social media, which includes many of your customers who are networking with others. No business can ignore social media anymore. If you are, you are not only losing an opportunity to enhance your business, but your absence may also be causing damage to your brand and reputation. Social influence has always played a major role in the buying decisions of customers. But now more and more people are relying on the social media online to seek referrals and recommendations from others, asking / answering questions and sharing their experiences. It is not only the big multi-national or national brands, the phenomenon can be seen taking place at the local level; theatres, restaurants, etc, are all being discussed on the social media. Businesses usually refer to the social media as a consumer-generated media (CGM). Social media can be differentiated from industrial or traditional media like magazines, newspapers, television, and film, as they are relatively inexpensive, easily accessible and enable anyone (private individuals) to publish or access information.
Benefits of social media to businesses are as follows:
a) Accessibility: The social media is easily accessible and takes minimal or no costs to use. Social media is easy to use and does not require any special skills, knowledge to use. It is absolutely simple to connect with others and be a part of communities. Therefore, anyone with online access can use the Social Media to initiate or participate in the conversations. In a sense, everyone is now empowered to speak up.
b) Speed: The content that you create on the social media is available to everyone in your network/forum/community as soon as you publish it. You can communicate with your audience without any external factor affecting the delivery of your message. The responses are also near instantaneous and thus you can have a dialogue, which is almost in real-time.
c) Interactivity: Social media affords a two way or multiple communication channels. Users can interact with each other; ask questions, discuss products/services, share opinions and anything else they might be interested in doing.
d) Longevity/volatility: Social media content remains accessible for a long time, maybe forever, because of the nature of the medium. In addition to this the content can be edited/updated anytime. So, if a user likes a particular product and says so in the social media, it is not a permanent positive vote for the product; the user can always go back and change his opinion anytime.
e) Reach: The Internet offers an unlimited reach to all content available. Anyone can access it from anywhere and anyone can reach, potentially, everyone. Social media offers the same facility to all the users who can share anything with anyone they like.
f) Online Branding: Every business wants to be known as a brand, which is, in effect, its “identity” that may be represented by a name, logo, colour schemes or the tag line. But, the term “branding” goes much beyond just these and is in fact a culmination of the individual “identity” of the business, how it differs from its competitors and why a buyer should come to it.
g) Marketing: Social Media Marketing is the way businesses and non-profit organisations use the social media effectively to build relationships through trust, useful content, helpfulness, and authority.
h) Building Relationships: For a business to be successful it needs satisfied customers, and for a customer to be satisfied they need good customer care and service. A satisfied customer is a loyal customer. So how can a business provide good customer service, care, or support?
i) Word-of Mouth / Networking: Social Media is the new Word-of-Mouth. Since people are all inter-connected with each other, a small mention in any of your audience’s profile goes a long way in spreading the word about your business/product. Let your customers become your marketing agents.
j) Online Reputation Management: “The practice of monitoring the Internet reputation of a person, brand or business, with the goal of suppressing negative mentions entirely or pushing them lower on search engine results pages to decrease their visibility is known as online reputation management (ORM).”
k) Community Building: A company or business can use the social media to build a community around its products/business. Vibrant communities create loyalty and encourage discussions, which can contribute towards business development and improvement.
l) Lending a Human Face to the Business: More and more customers are sick of the marketing jargon and are not comfortable dealing with faceless businesses. People like to deal with people and participation in social media helps to lend a face to your business.

Thus, the answer to your question is that to find major customers of particular worldwide public company tap into the social media influence of that company. You will not only get customers there but also ex-employees who will help you know understand the company well. Besides if you do have any questions give me a call:

A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are,, and All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web. There are also private websites that can only be accessed on a private network, such as a company's internal website for its employees. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, such as news, education, commerce, entertainment, or social networking. Hyperlinking between web pages guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a home page. Users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktops, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. The software application used on these devices is called a web browser.
Types of Websites:
1. Static website: A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format that is sent to a client web browser. It is primarily coded in Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML); Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are used to control appearance beyond basic HTML. Images are commonly used to affect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might also be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is generally non-interactive. This type of website usually displays the same information to all visitors. Like handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will generally provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text, photos, and other content and may require basic website design skills and software. Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are often static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, photos, animations, audio/video, and navigation menus. Static websites may still use server side includes (SSI) as an editing convenience, such as sharing a common menu bar across many pages. As the site's behaviour to the reader is still static, this is not considered a dynamic site.
2. Dynamic website: A dynamic website is one that changes or customizes itself frequently and automatically. Server-side dynamic pages are generated "on the fly" by computer code that produces the HTML (CSS are responsible for appearance and thus, are static files). There are a wide range of software systems, such as CGI, Java Servlets and Java Server Pages (JSP), Active Server Pages and ColdFusion (CFML) that are available to generate dynamic web systems and dynamic sites. Various web application frameworks and web template systems are available for general-use programming languages like Perl, PHP, Python and Ruby to make it faster and easier to create complex dynamic websites. A site can display the current state of a dialogue between users, monitor a changing situation, or provide information in some way personalized to the requirements of the individual user. For example, when the front page of a news site is requested, the code running on the webserver might combine stored HTML fragments with news stories retrieved from a database or another website via RSS to produce a page that includes the latest information. Dynamic sites can be interactive by using HTML forms, storing and reading back browser cookies, or by creating a series of pages that reflect the previous history of clicks. Another example of dynamic content is when a retail website with a database of media products allows a user to input a search request, e.g. for the keyword Beatles. In response, the content of the web page will spontaneously change the way it looked before and will then display a list of Beatles products like CDs, DVDs, and books. Dynamic HTML uses JavaScript code to instruct the web browser how to interactively modify the page contents. One way to simulate a certain type of dynamic website while avoiding the performance loss of initiating the dynamic engine on a per-user or per-connection basis is to regenerate a large series of static pages periodically automatically.
3. Multimedia and interactive content: Early websites had only text, and soon after, images. Web browser plug ins were then used to add audio, video, and interactivity (such as for a rich Internet application that mirrors the complexity of a desktop application like a word processor). Examples of such plug-ins are Microsoft Silverlight, Adobe Flash, Adobe Shockwave, and applets written in Java. HTML 5 includes provisions for audio and video without plugins. JavaScript is also built into most modern web browsers and allows for website creators to send code to the web browser that instructs it how to interactively modify page content and communicate with the webserver if needed. The browser's internal representation of the content is known as the Document Object Model (DOM) and the technique is known as Dynamic HTML. WebGL (Web Graphics Library) is a modern JavaScript API for rendering interactive 3D graphics without the use of plug-ins. It allows interactive content such as 3D animations, visualizations, and video explainers to presented users in the most intuitive way.
The websites you asked for are listed below:
1. Social Media Moderators: If you have basic social media skills and good people skills, this is an easy gig and usually comes with flexible hours. Available wherever you are in the world. Beyond social media, moderators are also needed to monitor comments and questions on blogs, forums, and chat rooms. The services that hire remote moderators are as follows:
a. The Social Element
b. Crisp Thinking
c. 99DollarSocial
d. Mod Squad

2. Focus Groups: Focus groups are different from surveys in that they are much more in-depth, often require in-person or at least phone/webcam participation and as a result, also pay much better. Here is a list of some reputable market research companies with active focus groups:
b. 20/20 Research
d. Mindswarms
e. Brand Institute
f. Nichols Research
g. Alder Weiner Research
h. Atkins Research Global

3. Microtasking: Microtask platforms connect companies who need small tasks completed so-called” Short Task”-with remote freelance workers who can perform them whenever they have some free time. Pay is not great, but they are easy to do on the side, even on a lunch break and are sometimes quite fun. These are the best-known platforms:
a. Amazon Mechanical Turk
b. Figure Eight
c. Clickworker
d. Microworker
e. Field Agent
f. EasyShift

4. Test Websites and Apps: Website or App testing is an easy way to make some extra money. No special skill is required. You just need a computer or smartphone with an in-built microphone, and you are good to go. The process is simple: You signup, take a short test and answer a few questions. That way the platforms can match you with the required target audience for each test. Here are some of the well-known options:
a. User testing
b. Validity
c. IntelliZoom
d. TestingTime
e. Userzoom
f. What UsersDo

5. Virtual Chat Agent: Chat support positions are extremely popular, so competition is high. You need fast typing skills and excellent grammar, punctuation, and spelling. The following companies offer chat support positions:
a. SiteStaff
b. The Chat Shop
c. Uber
d. Flexjob
e. Upwork

6. Simple Online Research: Without special expertise, you can earn extra cash with basic research gigs. Some notable among them are:
a. Hobby Jam
b. IT-Boss Research
c. JBS Court Research Services

7. Paid Surveys: Paid surveys will not replace a full-time job but can be nice extra income stream-and fun to do. Most surveys are paid with either gift cards to top retailers or “PayPal cash”, meaning your earnings will be sent to your PayPal account. Here are some of the better-known survey companies:
a. Vindale Research
b. SurveyJunkie
c. Swagbucks
d. Opinion Outpost
e. YouGov-Political
f. American Consumer Opinion
g. E-poll
h. One opinion

8. Data Entry: Data Entry is offered on micro tasking platforms, so there is some overlap, but here are a few companies that are more specialized on it. The notable companies that offer these services are:
a. The Smart Crowd
b. SigTrack
c. Cass Information Systems
d. Clickworker
e. Intuit
f. DionData
h. Flexjobs

9. Movie Captioner & Transcriptions: “Captions” are the black subtitles at the bottom of your TV screen that come on when you mute the sound. Someone obviously needs to write them and if you are a fast and accurate typist, this could be you.
a. TransPerfect
b. CaptionMax
c. Rev
10. Transcriptions: Transcriptions falls into three different groups: General Transcription, Legal Transcription and Medical Transcription. You obviously need fast, accurate typing skills and a fast, reliable internet connection. In addition, Express Scribe Software can help make the transcriptions process a lot faster and easier and eliminate the use of mouse.
The following companies hire newbies with no experience though they will usually do an evaluation test. The list of the companies are as follows:
a. TranscribeMe
b. Rev
c. Tigerfish
d. BabbleType
e. Accutran Global
f. Casting Words
g. Workshop
h. Scribie
i. Speechpad
j. Hollywood Transcriptions

11. Proofreading: If you have excellent grammar and punctuation, and an eye for detail, you start a proofreading career by offering your services to self-publishing authors, which is a booming industry. The following sites work with freelancer proof-readers:
a. EditFast
b. Gramlee
c. Wordvice
d. Proofreading Services
e. Scribendi

12. Virtual Assistant: Becoming a “Virtual Assistant (VA)” is one of the easiest entries into the world of home-based jobs and business options, because almost any skill can be monetized as a VA.
To get started, you can apply to any of the below agencies to get placed on current jobs:
a. Fancy Hands
b. Virtual Gal Friday
c. VA Sumo
d. Belay
e. StartUps Co.
f. 99 Dollar Social

13. Virtual Expert: If you can prove your expertise in a specific area, you can work for several online platforms answering customer questions and completing research assignments. A few notable among them are as follows:
a. Ask Wonder
b. Just Answer
c. Maven
d. Clarity
e. 6ya
f. Operator

14. Virtual Consultant: Freelance consulting gigs can be highly lucrative, and the below platforms connect virtual experts with companies around the world. A few notable among them are as follows:
a. On Frontiers
b. 10EQS
c. Internal Consulting
d. Expert360

15. Virtual Teacher: Whatever expertise you have, you can now teach it online to almost anyone in the world courtesy of the internet. The following allow you to list yourself, set your own schedule and fees, and start earning money as a virtual teacher. The following will be able to help:
a. PrestoExperts
b. Takelessons
c. BrainMass
d. Clarity
e. Maven

16. Translation: If you are fluent in another language-in, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Russian or Chinese-you will find plenty of translator gigs. Jobs could be in Customer service, transcriptions or working as an interpreter. Here is a list of translation agencies:
a. WeLocalize
b. Argos Multilingual
c. Rev
d. Tele Language
e. Transperfect
f. VerbalizeIt
g. LanguageLine

17. Virtual Academic Tutor: Remote academic tutoring and test prep gigs are available at the following companies, but they require college degree and teaching certifications:
a. Tutor
b. Brainfuse
c. PrepNow
d. Aim4A
e. Study Pool
f. Yup Tutoring

18. Academic Test Scorer: Another goodie you can do via courtesy of the internet, but it requires college degree for consideration. You can apply to these companies:
a. WriteScore
b. ACT
c. Measurement Inc
d. ETS
e. Literably
f. FlexJobs

19. Virtual English Tutor: Staying with the English as a 2nd Language theme, you can also teach English online. It is an industry that has exploded over the last few years, especially based in China. Here are the best-known companies to apply:
a. Boxfish
b. Gogokid
c. Cambly
d. italki
e. VIPKid
f. Qkid

20. Pro Virtual Researcher: There are many ways to get paid for online research, both for simple tasks that only take a few minutes to complete all the way up to professional level research assignments.
a. First Quarter Finance
b. 10EQS
c. RWS
D. Ask Wonder
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call:

Ideas are not successful on their own accord; they require to be creative ideas to be successful. Creativity allows you to feel confident and motivated, it helps you come up with solutions that might work, and it helps you feel like you have got everything ‘together’ as it should be. Creativity also allows you to unlock possibilities and create a reality that helps you reach your inner potential. Without creativity everything is a little, well, boring. In order to be creative, you need to be little selfish from time to time. Everyone has the potential to be creative, you simply need to let it out. That can be difficult when you have people telling you that your ideas are crazy, or trying to get you to conform to so-called social norms, however. As a result, you start to believe that your creativity is a waste of time. That is the biggest shame of them all.
In order to use your creativity, you need to forget the past, forget living in future, and instead firmly live in here and now. Creativity helps make life worth living and helps put a smile on your face. At the heart of it all, creativity is driven by deep need to show our inner, true selves. That means we show our good sides, our bad sides, and our weird sides. We do all of this and we want to be accepted. Despite that, you need to ask yourself some questions, including ‘who am I, and what do I have to show to the world?’
Now you may ask ‘When does creativity happen? ‘Let us look at the following points below to understand the question:
1. Role of the Subconscious: Sometimes problems get solved when people are working on other problems, thinking about other issues, or engaged in recreational pursuits. People have even solved problems after sleeping on them! Bertrand Russell reported how, when he was writing Principia Mathematica, he would frequently go to bed having failed to solve a problem despite much effort. On waking the next morning, the solution to the problem unexpectedly popped into his head. His subconscious biological computer had solved the problem during his sleep. Your subconscious is the storehouse of everything you know, even things you cannot readily call into awareness. It makes patterns and connections without your awareness. Some people are more creative late at night, while others are more creative early in the morning. Research has established that early birds find more original solutions late at night, while night owls do better early in the morning. Ideas often come to us at the most unexpected times and in the most unexpected places. It is said that the Greek scientist Archimedes discovered the principle of buoyancy when stepping into his bath, when he noticed the level of the water rose as he got into it. King Hieron had posed the problem for Archimedes to solve that the King’s new crown was definitely made of solid gold. He suspected the artisan who made the crown of being deceitful by alloying or corrupting the gold in his crown but had no way of proving it. Archimedes could not simply break open the crown as that would have destroyed it. Instead he realised that the problem could be solved, by measuring the volumes of water displaced by the crown and an equal weight of gold. By comparing densities, he could determine the gold content of the crown and thus solve the King’s problem. Your subconscious will process, recombine, adapt, and consolidate ideas, images and experiences and suggest solutions. It is a way of accessing the vast resources of the subconscious and tap spontaneous useful insights. Therefore, daydreaming is so effective for producing creative ideas. It is also natural to daydream. Psychologists and neuroscientists estimate that we spend between 15 and 50% of our waking hours daydreaming – that is we stray away from reality and focus instead on our inner thoughts, feelings, and fantasies.
2. Inspired by Dreams: Many scientists have been inspired by their dreams to make wonderful discoveries and inventions. When you sleep your mind doesn’t turn off. Instead it becomes highly active during dreaming. Sometimes dreams are the way your mind works out solutions to problems you may have and taps into the creativity in your subconscious to do so. For many writers and inventors their dreams can be powerful inspirational tools. There is an adage “to sleep on it” which means that if you go to sleep thinking about a problem, you may wake up in the morning with the solution. So, if you plant a seed before you sleep the mind works on it as you sleep. Daydreams also help us to build and practise our social skills. We can rehearse social encounters in a virtual imaginative world such as difficult encounters with the boss, making fun of the teacher, and potential conflicts with our enemies without risk, blame or consequence. Instead of being a waste of time, daydreams are now seen as a potential door to the Nobel Prize. Many famous scientists used visionary daydreams to help them win the coveted prize.
Rene Descartes is known as the “father of modern science.” What is not widely known is that the essence of what we now know as the “scientific method” was revealed to him in a dream. The scientific method is where a new model, paradigm or hypothesis is developed to explain a natural phenomenon. This is then supported through experiments to test the model. Descartes was an exceptionally bright young man and dropped out of school at the age of 17 when he realised that he wasn’t learning anything. He then decided to retire at the tender age of 20, and for the next two years did little else but stay in bed, read, reflect, dream, and write. It was during the second year of his retreat that the scientific method came to him while dreaming. Take the case of Elias Howe, who invented the lock stitch sewing machine, and claimed to have hit on the idea after a nightmare. He dreamed that while cannibals were boiling him alive, he noticed that their spears had holes in the tips. This proved to be the novel solution to his problem of where he would put the eye of the needle of his sewing machine. August Kekule, a famous German chemist, discovered that many organic compounds are formed of rings, rather than open molecules. He was inspired by a dream of a snake swallowing its tail, with the realisation that the Benzene chemical compound had a circular rather than a linear structure. He thus solved a problem that had been confounding chemists for a long time. In addition, do not ignore your intuition or sixth sense, as gut feelings sometimes are inspirational, and the idea generated may have practical validity. Our intuition may serve us well in some circumstances by harnessing the subconscious processing part of the brain. Otto Loewi (1873-1961), a German born physiologist, won the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1936 for his work on the chemical transmission of nerve impulses. His discovery was inspired by a dream. In 1903, Loewi had the idea that nerve impulses had a chemical rather than an electrical cause, which was the conventional wisdom at the time. However, he did not know how to prove his idea. He left the idea incubate for 17 years, until he had an inspirational dream about how he could draw up an experiment to prove his thesis. It took Loewi another 10 years before he could carry out the tests to prove his theory to the satisfaction of his peers and critics.
You must pay attention to your daydreams if you are to reap the benefits of potential creative insights. Jerry Swartz, is the inventor of the first hand-held barcode laser scanner, and the first commercial wearable computer. He always carried index cards with him, so that he could record any ideas occurring to him while daydreaming lest he forget them.
3. Relaxation and creativity: Relaxation helps us generate creative insights. Albert Facey had no pressures on him when he wrote the bestseller A Fortunate Life. He never meant it to be published. Relaxation also helps recharge your batteries when you feel you are tired. This is why Google puts Ping-Pong tables and other recreational facilities in their headquarters to encourage breaks and reinvigorate employees. They also include a large cafeteria with food service for employees and their guests. If you want to encourage insights, then you’ve got to encourage people to relax. Nolan Bushnell, the founder of the Atari Company, got the inspiration for one of his best-selling video games while playfully kicking sand on a beach.

Mozart maintained that his best musical ideas came to him when least expected, while travelling alone, or walking after an enjoyable meal, or during periods of wakefulness at night when he felt restless and could not sleep. Tchaikovsky believed that walks were essential to his creativity. He would walk twice a day and occasionally stop to jot down ideas that he would later flesh out at the piano. It seems fresh air is a tonic to the brain! Einstein got his theory of relativity while taking a relaxing walk in the mountains. President Kennedy was famous for taking power naps in the middle of the day. This was Kennedy’s method of getting into a relaxed creative state. This was his way of intentionally switching off and a source of renewed energy and fresh perspectives. A report in the June 2009 Proceedings of the National Academy of Science confirmed the hypnagogic state. It found that naps can help people separate the gist of new information from extraneous details, and that catching some REM sleep makes people better at finding connections between weakly related words. This is a sure sign that napping helps creativity. The same report showed that a nap with REM (rapid eye movement) sleep improves people’s ability to integrate unassociated information for creative problem solving.
The poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge and the inventor Thomas Edison said that most of their ideas came to them when they were dozing. Edison was considered a daydreamer at school and was expelled but used this facility to good effect when he grew up. He would think about his problem before he dropped off and would keep a diary nearby to record the outcome. He would doze off in his chair with his arms over the armrests. In each arm he held two ball bearings. He would place two plates on the floor underneath his arms. As he drifted off his hand would relax, and the ball bearings would fall and hit the plates with a loud bang. Awakened by the noise, Edison would immediately write down any ideas that had come to him in his dreamlike state. Psychologists call the drowsy state just before we fall asleep as the hypnagogic state. They call the drowsy state just before we wake up the hypnopompic state. Edison induced the hypnagogic state on purpose by taking frequent naps. During the hypnagogic state people can experience novel ideas and thoughts that might never occur otherwise. The mind is at its most flexible during this time combining things in the most unusual ways. This drowsy creative state happens just before we go to sleep at night, and before we wake up in the morning. This is also a good time to programme our minds with positive affirmations, so that we develop a positive attitude in our lives. Besides Edison, many other famous people used the hypnagogic state to inspire their creations. These included artists, writers, composers, philosophers, and scientists such as Salvador Dali, the Spanish surrealist painter, Edgar Alan Poe, the American writer, Beethoven, the German composer, Aristotle, the Greek philosopher and August Kekule, a famous German chemist. These people claimed they were inspired by flashes of genius which came to them during a hypnagogic state. Salvador Dali used a similar technique to Edison to induce the hypnagogic state to inspire ideas for his painting. He would lie on a sofa and hold a spoon in one hand, balancing it over a glass placed on the floor. As he drifted off to sleep, he had inevitably let the spoon fall and the noise of the spoon hitting the glass would awaken him. He would then sketch the bizarre surreal hypnagogic images he saw.
4. Notes to Inspire: Keeping notes is a feature of people who achieve creative greatness. Just like the creative geniuses of history meticulously keep a complete record of your dreams, ideas and insights. You never know when they might come in very useful. Things change quickly and ideas currently impracticable may come of age at some future date. Also keep a treasure file of unusual stories, anecdotes, insights and snippets of information that you might be able to use later. These ideas may come through purposeful research of books, magazines, newspapers, encyclopaedias and surfing the internet. Libraries, bookshops, Wikipedia and Google are good starting points for your research.

B.F. Skinner, the most influential behavioural scientist of the 20th century, believed that we all have good ideas, but must remember to capture them when they come, as otherwise we will forget them. He realised that human memory was fickle, and so always carried a small notebook with him so that he could write down ideas as they came to him. Many people produce a to-do list to remind them about the things they need to do each day to achieve their purpose. The list acts as a constant reminder of what needs to be done. Most people fail to turn their creative dreams into deeds because of lack of discipline, commitment and follow through. Novelists and non-fiction writers could not produce their books without the ability to produce notes on their observations and research. Many like to use mind maps to record their notes. Famous people, and the not so famous, conscientiously keep diaries to record the events in their lives. This is a valuable source of factual everyday information about their lives and helps as a reference and aide-memoire when writing their autobiographical books. Some famous creative geniuses maintain that they get their best ideas during the drowsy states just before they fall asleep, and just before they wake up in the morning. They keep notebooks near their bedsides to capture these ideas as otherwise they will lose them. Charles Darwin was an avid note taker. When researching scientific literature over many decades he kept detailed notes of his findings. When he went to the Galapagos and other exotic destinations on the HMS Beagle, he kept detailed notes of his observations about plant, insect, and animal life. These notes form the basis for his revolutionary theory of evolution and natural selection. Even when back at home in England he kept detailed notes about his observations on plant, insect, and animal life.
Leonardo da Vinci kept detailed notes and drawings of his ideas. Many of his notes have survived to this day. They show the broad interests of this famous renaissance figure. There are hundreds of pages of his notes including sketches, doodles, and musings. At the time of his death in 1519 Leonardo had earned a great reputation as an artist, but the legacy of notes that he left behind for posterity showed that he also had capabilities as an engineer, scientist, astronomer and inventor.
His notes contain information on mathematics, geometry, astronomy, botany, zoology, and the military arts. Included in his notes are illustrations of gliders, flying machines, a parachute, and an underwater diving bell. On the military side he designed a giant crossbow and a spring catapult to hurl boulders. He also designed siege machines to breech city walls and span moats. During his lifetime Leonardo made no attempt to publish his notes, even though printing had been invented, and so he could have published them if he wanted to. Galileo’s confirmation of the Copernican view that the sun was the centre of the universe rather than the earth would not have come to light if he did not keep copious notes. More importantly was his discovery of the four moons in orbit around the planet Jupiter. This gave credence to the Copernican model that displaced the Earth from the centre of the universe. Galileo kept careful notes of his observations about Jupiter’s moons over many nights and published the data with his interpretation. He was the first to do so. In addition, he kept meticulous notes about his discoveries, wrote letters to his benefactors and published twelve written works between 1564 and 1642.
5. Serendipity has been defined as the ability to make fortunate discoveries accidentally. Irving Langmuir, 1932 Nobel Prize winner in chemistry, defined serendipity as “the art to profit from unexpected occurrences.” Serendipity needs three elements to happen: action, recognition and insight. Action sets the stage, recognition allows one to see and not overlook what is happening, and insight is the ‘eureka’ moment or understanding when a possible application is seen. Many of the Nobel Prizes for discoveries in physics, chemistry, and medicine, ranging from x-rays to penicillin were the result of serendipity. Serendipitous people are not afraid to try something new. Instead they think: ‘Isn’t that interesting?’ ‘Isn’t that a possibility?’ ’I’d like to give that a try.’ If you are psychologically prepared for the possibility of serendipity you are likely to find more of it and exploit it. You must recognise what is happening and realise the significance of it. As Pasteur said chance only favours the prepared mind. A prepared mind is one that is curious and always asking ‘why?’ or ‘what? The prepared mind ponders and investigates the unusual occurrence, and sees an opportunity where others only see an obstacle or a mistake. The prepared mind is usually one with extensive training and experience. The word ‘serendipity’ was first coined by Horace Walpole, an 18th century British diarist, who wrote about the Persian story of the three Princes of Serendip (now Sri Lanka). These fairy tale characters were always having the good luck of making fortunate discoveries through chance. Mystery writer, Lawrence Block said: “One aspect of serendipity to bear in mind is that you have to be looking for something in order to find something else.” In science, carefully planned experiments are designed to systematically test a hypothesis or prove a scientific claim. However, they often yield unexpected but potentially useful results not specifically expected or looked for. We should not view chance events as random and meaningless. On the contrary, serendipity provides a framework for understanding, working and accepting such phenomena when they occur. The sign of a good scientist is having the presence of mind to recognise and pursue the unexpected results to make a worthwhile discovery; to see an opportunity rather than dismisses it as an irrelevant anomaly. Scientists must have knowledge, curiosity and flexibility of mind, motivation and perseverance to exploit these opportunities when they arise. They must have an in-depth knowledge of their subject, and continually keep up to date about new advances in their field. Knowledge provides the fuel for their imagination, while imagination is the catalyst that transforms knowledge into ideas. For example, the pharmaceutical industry is a knowledge-based industry. Its scientists are drawn from different disciplines, and its success depends on its ability to use the latest scientific knowledge and techniques. In addition, scientists should have a broad knowledge of other subjects which may help them develop new perspectives and ideas. Reading widely and using search engines like Google will help them in this process. This bank of knowledge helps them to explain their observations and interpret their results.
Thus, thinking creatively requires the following:
1. Believe that you are creative: Expect to be creative and you are more likely to be creative. Chekhov said man is what he believes. Similarly, Jean-Paul Sartre concluded that man is what he conceives himself to be. Practise being creative. Your mind is like a muscle. The more you use it the stronger it becomes. Be positive but realistic about your ability to be creative. Believe you have a growth mindset rather than a fixed mindset.
2. Be open to new ideas: Look to nature, history, geography, other cultures, and famous creative people as sources of inspiration. Reframe or redefine problems in order to see things in unusual ways. Continually look for a better way of doing things. No matter how efficient a process is, there is always a better way of doing it. Turn things on their heads. Think about the opposite. Take the familiar and look at it in a different way. Do not look at things as they are or always have been but as they might be. See things from other points of view. Also, sometimes we see things we expect or want to see rather than reality. Learn to separate perception from reality.
3. Get into a creative state when you need to: To do so, remember a time when you were in a creative state. Visualise intensely what it felt like. Anchor the feeling by pressing your thumb and forefinger together. Practise this a few times. Re-experience this state at any time by pressing your thumb and forefinger together.
4. In business one sacrosanct assumption is that the customer is always right: Marketing people often conduct surveys to find out what people actually need. The problem with this approach is that some people don’t know what they want and reject ideas that they don’t understand or can’t relate to. For example, in the early 1990s, the initial reaction by consumers to mobile phone text messaging was, “Why would you want to send messages by phone?” They could not imagine a phone being used for anything but conversation. Texting caught on gradually when people discovered how fast, useful, and economical text messaging was. Today most people use text messaging in addition to talking on their phones. This is now a significant source of telecom revenue. Sony launched the Walkman even though consumer surveys suggested it would not succeed.
5. Challenge your preconceptions or stretch your mind by going outside your comfort zone: In other words, avoid getting into a rut or mindless, ineffectual habitual ways. If you keep on doing the same old thing you are surely going to get the same old results. So, do something different! To start the process, you could visit places you have never gone to before such as a gallery, a store or a museum. You could visit a foreign country and have a wide variety of experiences. On an everyday note you could drive a different way to work, or eat out in a different restaurant, and try a dish you have not experienced before.
6. Competition may be an antidote to creativity: Two groups of employees were asked to solve the same problem. One group was told prizes and recognition would be awarded to those who produced the best result. Competition was not mentioned to the second group. They were only told to have fun and enjoy themselves. The outcome was counterintuitive. When both groups’ solutions were studied, the second group’s solutions were more creative than those of the first group who were operating under a competitive mindset.
7. Build on existing ideas and inventions: We can all be inspired creatively by the people and things around us and by what has come before us. Writers are influenced by books they have read, or by other writers that they know. Painters draw on the tools, techniques, approaches and ideas of other artists. Musicians build on the style of other musicians, so that their own style can be a blend of others. Inventors build upon the creation of others. Henry Ford is often credited with inventing the automobile. This is not true. Cars developed out of a combination of bicycles and tricycles. These involved wheels and a geared mechanism. These were combined with engines for propulsion to create cars. In 1795, Joseph Cugnot, invented a steam driven cannon carriage, a type of tractor, for the French army which is credited by some as being the forerunner of the automobile. In fact, the history of the automobile is an evolution that took place over centuries worldwide. It is estimated that over 100,000 patents contributed to the modern automobile. Steam driven cars were not the only type of cars invented in the early days, there was also the electric car which today is making a comeback. Steve Jobs of Apple was inspired from knowledge taken from diverse fields to design and create his iPad. He famously remarked that creativity was just connecting things. He was particularly good at adapting the ideas of others. Apple did not invent MP3 players or tablet computers. They just made existing products better by combining things and adding unique design features.
8. Have considerable knowledge in your particular domain and generally through a wide range of interests: The greater knowledge you have the greater your ability to generate ideas, to combine ideas from different areas, and make creative breakthroughs. It is difficult to appreciate the applications and ideas in other fields to your own area if you are unaware of them. This isn’t easy as it takes about 10 years of disciplined study to build up sufficient expertise and knowledge in your particular domain. Reading is an easy and enjoyable way of acquiring a diverse source of knowledge. Read history to learn about the past. Many ideas of the past were abandoned because the technology did not exist to support them. The time may be exactly right to revisit these ideas because current technology may support them. There is nothing new under the sun. New ideas are just combinations of old ones. Read science fiction. With science fiction you can allow your imagination to wander freely without restraint. Many of the impossible innovations predicted in previous science fiction works are now reality. The writer Jules Verne in his books anticipated the submarine and landing a man on the moon.
9. Work smarter, not harder: You need to be efficient and effective at doing the right things. There are always better ways of doing anything. Consider if all steps are necessary in your processes. Are some unnecessary, repetitive and deliver no value? Is there a better way? The great Peter Drucker reminds us that sometimes the best course of action is to do nothing. The “bias for action” is popular, but in some circumstances inaction and reflection may be the best choice.
10. Take time to think and reflect: Incubation and reflection is a vital aspect of the creative process. You need time to test your hypotheses, question things, bounce your ideas off your colleagues, get different perspectives and compare your ideas with what is known in the literature.
11. Develop a tolerance for ambiguity: Accept that there is risk and uncertainty in life, and that there are times when you must embrace it if you want to succeed. Jonas Salk the developer of the polio vaccine said: “Risks, I like to say, always pay off. You learn what to do or what not to do.”
12. Work alone or in a group: Many creative people prefer to work alone. If you want to work with others, seek out positive people rather than negative people. Have a clear vision about what you want to achieve. With vision and passion, you can overcome any amount of negativity. If you tend to engage in negative self-talk, turn it into positive self-talk. Your mind cannot think of more than one thing at a time. In other words, you cannot hold a positive and a negative thought in your mind at the same time. This means that you can control what you think about. So, think positive thoughts! Through persistent programming, positive self-talk becomes automatic and rooted in your subconscious mind so that your outlook will improve.
13. Use all your brain: This includes the right side or creative side and the left side or logical side. You need the right side for coming up with ideas and you need the left side for problem definition and evaluation. Learn to access the subconscious mind through fantasy and daydreaming, as it is a huge storehouse of information. Research by Jonathan Schooler at the University of California, Santa Barbara, has found that people who daydream more score higher on various tests of creativity. Creativity is only limited by the paucity of your dreams and drive. Some great discoveries were made after dreaming. As discussed previously, Elias Howe invented the sewing machine and August Kekule discovered the benzene ring. Keith Richard of the Rolling Stones composed the song ‘I Can’t Get No Satisfaction’ after a dream. The tune for ‘Yesterday,’ one of the most recorded songs in history, came to Paul McCartney of the Beatles fame in a dream. Keep a pad at your bedside to capture your dreams. Each night just before you fall asleep tell yourself that you will remember your dreams. When you wake up jot down your dreams. The more ideas you generate the better, as 95% of ideas fail to become positive outcomes.
14. Give and receive feedback: Most people want to do excellent work, exceed the expectations of others and especially their own. Most companies treat feedback as a formal process to be given only after yearly or half-yearly performance appraisal sessions. This is much too infrequent and too late to modify behaviour and be beneficial. Feedback should be given as near to the event as possible, so that corrective action can be taken to improve things or put things right. Creative cultures thrive on timely, frequent, and spontaneous feedback. Feedback should be realistic to provide direction, and help people raise their own expectations. B.F. Skinner found that random rewards lead to desirable behaviour. Therefore, the gaming machines in Las Vegas are programmed to reward punters randomly. This provides them with the incentive to keep on spending their hard-earned cash.
15. Have fun: Develop a sense of humour. We experience some of our best ideas when we are happy, relaxed and having fun. Creativity is positively associated with joy and love, and negatively associated with anger, fear, and anxiety. Happiness and humour build rapport and promotes openness to new ideas, by relaxing people, and making them more receptive and less likely to criticise ideas. This leads to risk taking, which is the basis of creative thinking. You are more likely to come up with a creative idea if you were happy the day before. This is a kind of virtuous cycle. One day’s happiness often predicts the next day’s creativity. In addition, you are more likely to generate ideas during play, games, role play or laughter. Laughter is good for your health. Laughter is cathartic, releasing negative and destructive feelings. It boosts the immune system and stimulates the lymphatic system. It makes you feel good and positive, and helps you put problems in perspective. It loosens up the subconscious mind, and helps you develop novel perceptions. Probably the single most important thing a manager can do to encourage creativity is to make it fun to work on a project.
16. Do the things you enjoy and enjoy the things you do: Immerse yourself in what you are good at. Passion is one of the main reasons for creative success. It helps us overcome our limitations by turning negatives into positives. Think about possibilities rather than problems. Obstacles become problems to solve or opportunities to exploit. Passion is contagious like laughter. Find your passion and ignite the passion in others by inspiring and engaging them in your vision. Organisations like Google, Apple and Virgin let their employees know what they are passionate about. This helps their employees buy into the vision. Google has a passion for information; Apple has a passion for design, while Virgin has a passion for customer service.
17. Have a curious mind: In one of his journals Leonardo da Vinci wrote about having “an insatiably curious attitude to life, and unrelenting quest for continuous learning.” To build information about your subject, ask challenging questions. Questions may help you answer some overlooked relationship or discover some nugget of information that you need to solve a problem. Continually ask the question ‘why’? ‘how might you?’ and ‘what if’? Consider ‘why’? as a prompt to learning more. Consider ‘how might you?’ and ‘what if’? as a prompt to open possibilities. Creative people have a childlike wonder. They look at things in new ways, see things that others do not see, see things that are not there, and question what they do not understand. They continually challenge assumptions. Challenging long held assumptions is not as easy as it sounds. Even prominent scientists resist looking beyond long-held scientific assumptions, particularly if they feel that new thinkers are threatening their position.
18. Be willing to be different by challenging the status quo and questioning the norm: From an early age we are taught to conform. This begins in school, is reinforced by the norms of society, and the culture of workplace organisations. Defy the conventional and be non-conformist. You are happy to go it alone without popular support. People who follow the status quo or a consensus group view, are less likely to challenge ideas and be creative.
Thus, your idea has the potential only if it is creative, do not develop mental blocks to your creativity. Holding your feelings inside is a block to your creativity. Allow your thoughts and ideas to wander and that will help you become more creative.
“Dream it, Question it. Commit to it” (Felicia Day)
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